Carmarthenshire Revised Local Development Plan (LDP)

Habitats Regulations Assessment (HRA) Screening Report

 

 

Report for Community Scrutiny

 

 

 

 


 

 

1. Introduction

Habitat Regulations Assessment (HRA)

European Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Flora and Fauna (known as the ‘Habitats Directive’), implemented in the UK by the Habitat Regulations 2010, provides legal protection for a range of habitats and species identified as being of European importance.

Article 2 of the Directive requires the maintenance or restoration of these habitats and species, in a favourable condition, and is achieved through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas referred to as Natura 2000 sites. These are comprised of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) designated under European Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Fauna and Flora (‘the Habitats Directive 1992’), implemented in Britain by the Conservation (Natural Habitats & c) Regulations 2010 (‘the Habitat Regulations’); and Special Protection Areas (SPA) designated under EC Directive 79/409 on the Conservation of Wild Birds (‘the Birds Directive’) and Ramsar site under the Ramsar Convention on the Conservation of Wetlands of Importance.

Sites designated as wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention are subject to the same provisions as Natura 2000 sites.

The application of Habitats Regulations to Development Plans

Part IVA of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994 (“the Habitats Regulations”) transposes the requirements of article 6(3) and (4) of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) in relation to “land use plans”. These plans are defined in regulation 85A and include the following:

·         Local development plans adopted or approved under the 2004 Act; and

·         Unitary development plans adopted or approved under the 1990 Act, in accordance with the transitional agreements.

WAG’s Technical Advice Note 5, Annex 6(ref) states that The HRA process should consist of the following elements:

·         Determining whether the development plan, alone or in combination with other plans or projects, is likely to have significant effect on any European sites or European offshore marine sites and if so, scoping the “appropriate assessment”;

·         Undertaking the “appropriate “assessment” (in consultation with NRW and/or Natural England) to identify any significant effects that the development plan may have on any European sites or European offshore marine sites, either alone or in combination with other plans or projects, in view of those sites’ conservation objectives;

·         Where the “appropriate assessment” identifies potentially significant impacts on a European site or European offshore marine site, identifying whether there are possible alternative solutions or mitigation measures which, if adopted, will avoid or counteract those adverse impacts;

·         Determining, in light of the “appropriate assessment”, whether the development plan will or will not adversely affect the integrity of any European site or European offshore marine site, either alone or in combination with other plans or projects;

·         Where there is a possibility that the plan could have such an adverse effect, determining whether there are any alternative solutions to the development plan, or to the potentially damaging elements within that plan, which would avoid or reduce such effects upon the European site(s) or European offshore marine site(s); and

·         Where there are no such alternative solutions, determining whether there are imperative reasons of overriding public interest for giving effect to the development plan.

The methods and approach used for this screening are based on guidance currently available and emergent practice, which recommends that HRA is approached in four main stages - outlined in Table 1 below. This report outlines the method and findings for stage 1 of the HRA process.

Table 1 Habitats Regulations Assessment: Key Stages

Habitats Regulation Assessment Stage

Purpose

Task

1. Screening

Process for identifying impacts of a plan or project on a European site, either individually or in combination, and consideration of whether likely effects will be significant.

·         Description of the plan

·         Identification of potential effects on European Sites

·         Assessing the effects on European Sites.

2. Appropriate Assessment

Consideration of impacts on integrity of the site, either individually or in combination with other plans and projects, having regard to the site’s structure, function and conservation objectives. Where adverse impacts are identified, assess mitigation options to identify impacts on the integrity of the site. This stage should involve consultation. If mitigation options do not result in avoidance of adverse effects permission can only be granted if the remaining 2 stages are followed.

·         Gather information (plan and European Sites)

·         Impact prediction

·         Evaluation of impacts in view of conservation objectives

3. Assessment of alternative solutions

Review and examine alternatives to achieve objectives; would these alternative solutions avoid or have less adverse effects on the European sites?

·         Where impacts considered to affect qualifying features, identify alternative options

·         Assess alternative options

·         If no alternatives exist, define and evaluate mitigation measures where necessary

4. Assessment of any ‘imperative reasons of overriding public interest’ (IROPI)

Where no suitable alternative solution exists and adverse impacts still remain then assess whether the development is necessary for IROPI. If so then identify potential compensatory measures to maintain integrity and coherence of the protected site.

·         Identify ‘imperative reasons of overriding public interest’ (IROPI)

·         Identify potential compensatory measures

Purpose of report

At this stage of Plan preparation, with the exception of a small number of strategic sites, the Preferred Strategy will not include reference to the identification of any site-specific allocations. This will be done as part of drawing up the Deposit LDP, once the Preferred Strategy has been agreed.

This HRA Report therefore comprises the high-level preliminary screening stage (of the HRA process) of the Preferred Strategy. It identifies those allocation sites and/or policies which would clearly have no effects upon European sites enabling these to be ‘screened out’ of any further assessment. Therefore, the focus of further, more detailed assessment would only be applied to allocation sites, or policies, where a likely significant effect could be possible. Further detailed screening will be carried out on the next iteration of the LDP (i.e. the Deposit LDP) when the policies have been prepared and a full list of allocation sites has been agreed. Allocation sites and policies included for further detailed screening would then be reviewed in more detail based on the available information.

Consultation

The Habitats Regulations require the plan making/competent authority to consult the appropriate nature conservation statutory body (Natural Resources Wales) if undertaking an Appropriate Assessment, however  consultation with other bodies and the public is left to the discretion of the local planning authority (regulation 85B(3)).

WAG guidance notes that it is good practice to make information on HRA available to the public at each formal development plan consultation stage. Therefore, in addition to the statutory consultation undertaken with NRW, this report will be made available for wider consultation.

Responses to this consultation should be sent in writing to:

Forward Planning Section,

Environment Department,

7/8 Spilman Street,

Carmarthen,

Carmarthenshire,

SA31 1JY

or e mail: forward.planning@carmarthenshire.gov.uk

or online at www.carmarthenshire.gov.uk by the closing date of XXX

Following the receipt of the consultation comments, they will be reviewed and modifications will be made to the HRA screening report as necessary

Structure of report

This report documents the process and the findings from the screening stages of the HRA for Carmarthenshire County Council Preferred Strategy. Following this introductory section, the document is organised into the following sections:

Section 2 outlines the methodology and key tasks undertaken for the HRA screening of the Preferred Strategy stage of the LDP, and includes reference to the key information sources used.

Section 3 outlines the process and summary findings of the Screening Process and assessment including:

§  3.1 Task 1: Identification and characterisation or European Sites

§  3.2 Task 2: Screening of Preferred Strategy to identify potential likely effects on European Sites

§  3.3 Task 3: Consideration of effects in combination with other plans, programmes and projects.

§  3.4 Task 4: Screening Assessment Summary

 

 

2. Methodology

Stage 1 – Screening

The process of Screening can be broken down into four main task areas. Each task is outlined below.

·         Task 1: Identification and characterisation of European sites

·         Task 2: Review and screening of Development Plan to identify potential impacts and likely effects on European sites.

·         Task 3: Consideration of other plans and projects that may act ‘in-combination’

·         Task 4: Screening Assessment, recording the opinion and supporting information and analysis.

A screening assessment, both alone and in combination, with other identified plans and projects will identify if any significant environmental affects will result affecting the site and conclude whether significant affects are likely or not.

If no potential significant affects are identified, the process ends at this stage.

If there are found to be likely significant effects, having applied the precautionary principle, the plan must be subject to an Appropriate Assessment (AA) of its implications for the European site in view of the site’s conservation objectives. The work carried out at the evidence gathering stage and the screening stage should be drawn upon to assist in assessing the effects of the plan option on the conservation objectives

Determining ‘likely significant effect’

In order to decide whether a development plan at any stage requires an appropriate assessment, it is necessary to apply the two tests set out in regulation 85B(1) of the regulations, which are:

(1)    Is the plan likely to have a significant effect on a European site or European offshore marine site (either alone or in combination with other plans or projects)?

(2)    Is it directly connected with or necessary to the management of the site?

When undertaking this assessment a precautionary approach is required. The development plan should be considered ‘likely’ to have such an effect if the planning authority is unable (on the basis of objective information) to exclude the possibility that the plan could have significant effects on any European site or European offshore marine site, either alone or in combination with other plans or projects.

An effect will be considered ‘significant’ in this context if it could undermine the conservation objectives of a European designated site. The assessment of that risk (of ‘significance’) must be made in the light, amongst other things, of the characteristics and specific environmental conditions of the site concerned.

The screening step will therefore screen out aspects of the plan which could not have any negative effect at all on a European site, because there is no link, nor pathway, nor other relationship between the effects of the policy or proposal and any European site, including cases where the link is severed or eliminated by distance, or because any potential effects would be positive, not negative.

If the likelihood of significant affects cannot be ruled out on the evidence available, then it must be assumed that a risk of significant affects may exist. These will then need to be addressed through either changes to the scheme, avoidance or through securing mitigation measures.

Guidance for Habitats Regulations Appraisal/Appropriate Assessment

The following methodology developed for the HRA screening is based upon the following regulations and guidance documents:

Regulations:

§  Conservation of Habitats and Species (Amendment) Regulations 2012 (the ‘Conservation Regulations’).

§  Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, (the 'Habitats Directive').

Guidance:

§  Assessment of plans and projects significantly affecting Natura 2000 sites. European Commission (2001).

§  Department for Communities and Local Government (2006). Planning for the Protection of European Sites: Guidance for Regional Spatial Strategies and Local Development Documents.

§  TAN 5

§  Habitats Regulations Assessment: A toolkit to support HRA Screening and Appropriate Assessment of Plans. South East Wales Strategic Planning Group (SEWSPG) (2008)

§  DTA Publications Limited The Habitats Regulations Assessment Handbook.

 

 


3. Screening

3.1 Task 1: Identification and characterisation or European Sites

Plans, programmes and projects can have spatial implications that extend beyond the intended plan boundaries. It is recognised that distance in itself is not a definitive guide to the likelihood or severity of an impact and factors such as prevailing wind direction, river flow direction and groundwater flow direction will all have baring on the relevant distance at which an impact can occur. This means that a plan directing development some distance away from a European Site could still have effects on the site and therefore, needs to be considered as part of the screening process.

European sites on which Carmarthenshire Local Development Plan could potentially have a significant effect have been identified via data obtained through the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Protected Sites Designations Directory and by applying a 15km buffer from the County boundary, in order to take into consideration the potential for transboundary impacts.

12 designated sites lie within Carmarthenshire’s County boundary and are listed in the table below.

European Site within Plan Boundary

Designation

River Tywi

SAC

Caeau Mynydd Mawr

SAC

Cernydd Carmel

SAC

Carmarthen Bay Dunes

SAC

River Teifi

SAC

Cleddau Rivers

SAC

Carmarthen Bay and Estuary

SAC

Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

SAC

Carmarthen Bay

SPA

Elenydd - Mallaen

SPA

Burry Inlet

SPA

Burry Inlet

Ramsar

 

Screening has identified a further 13 designated sites that lie within the 15km buffer zone and may be influenced by transboundary effects of the Carmarthenshire preferred strategy.

 

European Site within 15km buffer around Plan Boundary

Designation

Distance from Plan boundary (km)

Cardigan Bay

SAC

9.2km

North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

SAC

9.0km

Yerbeston Tops

SAC

8.8km

Rhos Llawr-cwrt

SAC

7.5km

Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

SAC

6.9km

Gower Ash Woods

SAC

8.8km

Pembrokeshire Marine

SAC

4.7km

Gower Commons

SAC

4.0km

River Wye

SAC

1.7km

Gweunydd Blaencleddau

SAC

1.9km

Preseli

SAC

0.5km

Mynydd Epynt

SAC

1.8km

River Usk

SAC

0.2km

 

Appendix 1.provides a summary of each of the European sites considered to potentially be affected by the Carmarthenshire Preferred Strategy, and sets out the conservation objectives and condition assessment for each of the features of interest for each site. Detailed site characterisation information for each of the identified sites can be found in the accompanying Core Management Plan and Natura 2000 standard data form for each site, which can be accessed via the Joint Nature Conservation Committee website.

 


Figure 1 Location of European sites in relation to Carmarthenshire.

 


3.2 Task 2: Screening of Preferred Strategy to identify potential likely effects on European Sites

This chapter sets out a preliminary screening of the potential significant likely effects of the revised Carmarthenshire Draft Pre-Deposit Preferred Strategy on the conservation objectives of the European sites identified in Task 1.

Those sites identified as having the potential for Likely Significant Effects (LSE), as a result of the implementation of the Preferred Strategy, or those European sites for which impacts were uncertain, will be carried forward into more detailed screening assessment.

Scanning and selection European sites potentially affected.

The scanning stage identifies sites that may be affected by the plan as far beyond as necessary for sites and identifying causal connections and links between the plan proposals and the qualifying features of the sites.

The checklist provided in Table 2  identifies potential pathways by which the Preferred Strategy may impact on European sites. This checklist reflects and expands upon Natural Resources Wales (NRW) guidance, and provides a systematic and transparent way of identifying sites potentially affected by the Preferred Strategy.

Figure 2 Impact Source, Pathway, Receptor model

This process enables an appropriate ‘short list’ of sites potentially affected to be identified, from which he final list of sites to be included in assessment can be selected after considering the relevant information. Selection of sites is an iterative process, considering and reconsidering information until there is a satisfactory degree of confidence that all sites potentially adversely affected have been selected.

If there is no causal connection or link between the Plan’s proposals and the sites qualifying features there cannot be an effect. If there is a ‘theoretical’ pathway or ‘hypothetical’ cause, but in practice there is no credible evidence of a real link to the site, it cannot be regarded as being potentially significant, either alone or in combination with other plans and projects. There is no point including that supposition in further assessment.

This scan is broad ranging, but following a systematic approach is likely to ensure compliance and to provide credible and demonstrable evidence of how sites were scanned and selected.

The scanning list includes plans by:

·         Type – e.g. plans that increase the amount of development

·         Potential effect on resources - e.g. the aquatic environment or mobile species

·         The nature of potential effects – e.g. plans that introduce new activities which could affect air quality.

Table 2 Scanning and site selection list for sites that could potentially be affected by the plan.

Types of plan

Site selection criteria

Sites selected for further consideration

1. All plans (terrestrial, coastal and marine)

Sites within the plan area

SACs

§  River Tywi

§  Caeau Mynydd Mawr

§  Cernydd Carmel

§  Carmarthen Bay Dunes

§  Cleddau Rivers

§  River Teifi

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

SPA/Ramsar

§  Carmarthen Bay SPA

§  Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

§  Elenydd - Mallaen

2. Plans that could affect the aquatic environment

Sites upstream or downstream of the plan area in the case of river or estuary sites

SACs

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  River Usk

§  River Wye

SPA/Ramsar

§  Carmarthen Bay

§  Burry Inlet

Open water, peatland, fen, marsh and other wetland sites with relevant hydrological links to land within the plan area, irrespective of distance

SACs

§  Afon Teifi

§  Caeau Mynydd Mawr

§  Cernydd Carmel

§  Carmarthen Bay Dunes

§  Cleddau Rivers

§  Gweunydd Blaencleddau

§  Preseli

§  River Wye

SPA/Ramsar

§  Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

3. Plans that could affect the marine environment

Sites that could be affected by changes in water quality, currents or flows; or effects on the intertidal or subtidal areas or the seabed or marine species

SACs

§  Carmarthen Bay and Dunes

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  Cardigan Bay

§  Pembrokeshire Marine

SPA/Ramsar

§  Burry Inlet

§  Carmarthen Bay

4. Plans that could affect the coast

Sites in the same coastal ‘cell’ or part of the same coastal ecosystem, or where there are interrelationships with or between different physical coastal processes

SACs

§  Carmarthen Bay and Dunes

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  Cardigan Bay

§  Pembrokeshire Marine

SPA/Ramsar

§  Burry Inlet

§  Carmarthen Bay

5. Plans that could affect mobile species

Sites whose qualifying features include mobile species which may be affected by the plan irrespective of the location of the plans or whether the species would be in or out of the site when thy might be affected.

SACs

§  River Tywi

§  River Teifi

§  Cleddau Rivers

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  Caeau Mynydd Mawr

§  Cardigan Bay

§  Pembrokeshire Marine

§  River Wye

§  River Usk

§  North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

§  Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

§  Yerbeston Tops

§  Rhos Lawr Cwrt

§  Preseli

§  Gower Commons

SPA/Ramsar

§  Carmarthen Bay

§  Burry Inlet

6. Plans that could increase recreational pressure on European sites potentially vulnerable to such pressure

Such sites in the plan area

SAC

§  River Teifi

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  Carmarthen Bay Dunes

§  Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

SPA/Ramsar

§  Burry Inlet

§  Carmarthen Bay

§  Elenydd - Mallaen

Such sites within a reasonable travel distance of the plan area boundaries that may be affected by local recreational or other visitor pressure from within the plan area

None

Such sites within a longer travel distance of the plan area which are major (regional or national) visitor attractions such as site which are National Nature Reserves where public visiting is promoted, sites in National Parks, coastal sites and sites in other major tourist or visitor destinations.

None

7. Plans that would increase the amount of development

Sites in the plan area or beyond that are used for, or could be affected by, water abstraction irrespective of distance from the plan area

SACs

§  River Teifi

§  River Tywi

§  Cleddau Rivers

§  Caeau Mynydd Mawr

§  Cardigan Bay

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  Carmarthen Bay Dunes

§  Cernydd Carmel

§  Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

§  Mynydd Epynt

§  Preseli

§  River Wye

§  River Usk

§  Yerbeston Tops

§  Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

§  Pembrokeshire Marine

§  Gower Commons

SPA/Ramsar

§  Burry Inlet

§  Carmarthen Bay

Sites used for, or which could be affected by, discharge of effluent from waste water treatment works or other waste management streams serving the plan area, irrespective of distance

SACs

§  River Teifi

§  River Tywi

§  Cleddau Rivers

§  Cardigan Bay

§  Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

§  Cernydd Carmel

§  River Wye

§  River Usk

§  Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

§  Pembrokeshire Marine

SPAs/Ramsar

·         Burry Inlet

·         Carmarthen Bay

Sites that could be affected by the provision of new or extended transport or other infrastructure

None

Sites that could be affected by increased deposition of air pollutants arising from the plan, including emissions from significant increases in traffic

SACs

·         Caeau Mynydd Mawr

·         Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

·         Carmarthen Bay and Dunes

·         Cernydd Carmel

·         Cleddau Rivers

·         Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

·         Gower Ash Woods

·         Gower Commons

·         Gweunydd Blaencleddau

·         Mynydd Epynt

·         Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

·         Pembrokeshire Marine

·         Preseli

·         Rhos Llawr-cwrt

·         North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

·         Yerbeston Tops

SPA/Ramsar

·         Carmarthen Bay

·         Burry Inlet

8. Plans for linear developments or infrastructure

Sites within a specified distance from the centre line of a proposed route (or alternative routes), the distance may be varied depending on type of site/qualifying features and in the absence of established good practice standards, distances are to be agreed by the statutory nature body

None (Plan does not produce such risks)

9. Plans that introduce new activities or new uses to the marine, coastal or terrestrial environment

Sites considered have qualifying features potentially vulnerable or sensitive to the effects of the new activities proposed by the plan

None (Plan does not produce such risks)

10. Plans that could change the nature, area, extent, intensity, density, timing or scale of existing use activities.

Sites considered to have qualifying features potentially vulnerable or sensitive to the effects of the changes to existing activities proposed by the plan

None (Plan does not produce such risks)

11. Plans that could change the quantity, quality, timing, treatment or mitigation of emissions or discharges to air, water or soil

Sites considered to have qualifying features potentially vulnerable or sensitive to the changes in emissions or discharges that could arise as a result of the plan (over and above those already identified)

None (Plan does not produce such risks)

12. Plans that could change the quantity, volume, timing, rate or other characteristics of biological resources harvested, extracted or consumed

Sites whose qualifying features include the biological resources which the plan may affect, or whose qualifying features depend on the biological resources which the plan may affect e.g. as prey species or supporting habitat or which may be disturbed by the harvesting, extraction or consumption

None (Plan does not produce such risks)

13. Plans that could change the quantity, volume, timing, rate or other characteristics of physical resources extracted or consumed

Sites whose qualifying features rely on the non-biological resources which the plan may affect e.g. as habitat or physical environment on which habitat may develop or which may be disturbed by the extraction or consumption

None (Plan does not produce such risks)

14. Plans that could introduce, increase or alter the timing, nature or location of disturbance to species

Sites whose qualifying features are considered to be potentially vulnerable or sensitive to disturbance e.g. as a result of noise, activity or movement, or the presence of disturbing features that could be brought about by the plan

SACs

·         Afon Teifi

·         Afon Tywi

·         Cleddau Rivers

·         Cardigan Bay

·         Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

·         Cwm Doethie

·         Gower Commons

·         Gower Ash Woods

·         North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

·         Pembrokeshire Marine

·         Pembrokeshire Bat sites and Bosherton Lakes

·         River Wye

·         River Usk

SPA/Ramsar

·         Burry Inlet

·         Carmarthen Bay

15. Plans which could introduce, increase or change the timing, nature or location of light or noise pollution

Sites whose qualifying features are considered to be potentially vulnerable to the effects of changes in light or noise that could be brought about by the plan

SACs

·         Afon Teifi

·         Afon Tywi

·         Cleddau Rivers

·         Cardigan Bay

·         Carmarthen Bay

·         Pembrokeshire Marine

·         Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

·         River Wye

·         River Usk

SPAs

·         Burry Inlet

·         Carmarthen Bay

16. Plans which could introduce or increase a potential cause of mortality of species

Sites whose qualifying features are considered to be potentially vulnerable to the source of new or increased mortality that could be brought about by the plan

None (Plan does not produce such risks)

Based on the checklist and taking into account the nature, scope content and function of the Preferred Strategy, it is considered that the preliminary screening will need to consider the following range of effects:

·         Effects on aquatic environment

·         Effects on the marine environment

·         Effects on the coast

·         Effects on mobile species

·         Recreational effects

·         Effects associated development

-          Water abstraction

-          Discharge of effluent from wastewater

-          Effects of air pollution

·         Species disturbance effects

·         Noise and light pollution effects

Each effect mechanism is introduced and considered at a generic level in relation to the overall preferred strategy in the subsequent paragraphs and summarised in Table 12, where implications for further screening work have been identified. Where evidence shows that certain effect mechanisms will not result in Likely Significant Effects on certain sites, they are screened out from further assessment at this stage.

Effects on the aquatic environment

The ‘aquatic environment’ of a site is typically the body of water in a site, taking into consideration its movement into, through and out of the site. Effects considered under this heading relate to the localised effects of development on the existing surface water and ground water movement. Direct effects (such as sediment run off or the reduction of rainwater infiltration) are distinct from indirect effects such as water abstraction and wastewater, which are assessed separately under ‘effects associated with development’.

Development and changes in land use can have affect the aquatic environment. It can cause acceleration of run off by increasing hard surface and reducing areas where infiltration can occur, which can increase the amount of chemicals or other pollutants entering watercourses. Water run off can also be slowed, through water retention and the introduction of Sustainable drainage systems. Sedimentation of surface water can also occur through run off from building sites or the diversion of water courses to other catchments.

Sites identified as potentially vulnerable to this effect are detailed in Table 3. In the case of all of these sites, effects are only considered likely where development is in close proximity to a water course that is in hydraulic continuity to the site and so will need to be subject to detailed screening. For this reason identified sites are screened in at this stage and this is summarised in Table 3.

 

 

Table 3 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to effects on aquatic environment.

Sites identified as vulnerable

Further Assessment Required?

Reasoning

SAC

 

 

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

River Usk

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

River Wye

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

SPA/Ramsat

Carmarthen Bay SPA

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Elenydd - Mallaen

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

 

Effects on the marine environment

Development and growth can lead to effects on the marine environment. These effects are considered unlikely, but screened in for all identified sites for detailed assessment, on precautionary basis. Sites sensitive to effects on the marine environment and preliminary screening assessment is summarised in Table 4.

Table 4 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to effects on marine environment.

Sites identified as vulnerable

Further Assessment Required?

Reasoning

SAC

Carmarthen Bay and Dunes

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cardigan Bay

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Pembrokeshire Marine

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

SPA/Ramsar

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay SPA

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Effects on the coast

New development and growth can result in impacts on coastal processes. Installation of coastal defence structures to protect land and property can interfere with natural sand movement and erosion, which can result in coastal squeeze and effects on coastal dynamics.

Increased recreational pressures also have the potential to modify physical, chemical and environmental factors and processes in the coastal environment, which are assessed in more detail under ‘recreational effects’. These effects are considered unlikely, but screened in for all identified sites for detailed assessment, on precautionary basis. Sites sensitive to effects on the coast and screening assessment is summarised in Table 5.

 

Table 5 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to effects on the coast

Sites identified as vulnerable

Further Assessment Required?

Reasoning

SAC

Carmarthen Bay and Dunes

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cardigan Bay

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Pembrokeshire Marine

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

SPA/Ramsar

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay SPA

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

 

Effects on mobile species

Mobile species are those listed as features of a site, that are dependent on areas of land outside of the designated site boundary, such as birds, bats, fish etc. The mobile species identified as relevant to this preliminary assessment and the sites they are designated within are detailed in Table 6.

Table 6 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to effects on the coast

Sites with mobile species as designated features

Distance  outside CCC boundary

Potentially impacted Species

Further assessment required?

Within CCC boundary

River Tywi SAC

N/A

Twaite shad

No

Allis shad

No

Sea lamprey

No

River lamprey

No

Otter

Yes

River Teifi SAC

N/A

Twaite shad

No

Allis shad

No

Sea lamprey

No

River lamprey

No

Otter

Yes

Atlantic salmon

No

Cleddau Rivers SAC

N/A

River lamprey

No

Sea lamprey

No

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries SAC

N/A

Twaite shad

No

Allis shad

No

Sea lamprey

No

River lamprey

No

Otter

Yes

Caeau Mynydd Mawr SAC

N/A

Marsh Fritillary Butterfly

Yes

Carmarthen Bay SPA

N/A

Bird Assemblage

Yes

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

N/A

Bird Assemblage

Yes

Outside CCC boundary

Cardigan Bay SAC

9.2km

Bottlenose dolphin

No

Grey seal

No

Sea lamprey

No

River lamprey

No

Pembrokeshire Marine SAC

4.7km

Grey seal

No

Sea lamprey

No

River lamprey

No

Allis shad

No

Twaite shad

No

Otter

Yes

River Wye

1.7km

Twaite shad

No

Allis shad

No

Sea lamprey

No

River lamprey

No

Otter

Yes

Atlantic salmon

No

River Usk

0.2km

Twaite shad

No

Allis shad

No

Sea lamprey

No

River lamprey

No

Otter

Yes

Atlantic salmon

No

North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

9km

Barbastelle Bat

Yes

Pembrokeshire bat sites

6.9km

Greater Horseshoe Bat

Yes

Lesser Horseshoe Bat

No

Otter

Yes

Yerbeston Tops

8.8km

Marsh fritillary butterfly

No

Rhos Lawr-cwrt

7.5km

Marsh fritillary butterfly

No

Preseli

0.5km

Marsh fritillary butterfly

Yes

Gower Commons

4km

Marsh fritillary butterfly

No

 

Twaite Shad, Allis Shad, River lamprey, Sea lamprey and Atlantic salmon

The Twaite Shad, Allis Shad, River lamprey, Sea Lamprey and Atlantic salmon all utilise migratory routes through both estuarine and riverine SACs within Carmarthenshire at different stages of their life cycles. In Carmarthenshire, the Rivers Tywi, Teifi and Cleddau all have these as designated features of their SACs. The River Tywi is of particular importance to shad species as it is thought to be one of only four rivers in Wales in which they are known to spawn.

The rivers Tywi, Teifi and Cleddau all drain into estuaries which also have shad and lamprey as protected features, namely Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries SAC, Cardigan Bay SAC and Pembrokeshire Marine SAC respectively. The rivers Usk and Wye also have shad and lamprey as designated species and their catchment area lies partially within Carmarthenshire.

 

Offsite impact on features within these sites is likely to be as a result of water quality or abstraction impact. For this reason, any likely significant impacts on shad, lamprey or Atlantic salmon in the listed sites will be assessed further and in more detail under the heading ‘affects associated with development’ and will not be considered further under this impact pathway.

 

Marsh Fritillary Butterfly

Marsh fritillary butterfly are designated features of a number of sites within the 15km buffer zone for consideration under HRA (Table XX). Conservation objectives for Marsh fritillary butterflies state that ‘There will be at least 10ha of Good Condition (optimal breeding) habitat on or within 2km radii of the SAC, set in a matrix of at least 50ha of Suitable Condition habitat’.

 

All but Gower Commons SAC are considered to support insufficient habitat to achieve good conservation status under the above objective and are therefore highly sensitive to habitat fragmentation and loss as a result of development within a 2km radii of SAC boundaries.

 

Yerbeston tops SAC, Rhos Lawr cwrt SAC and Gower Commons SAC are sited more than 2km outside of the direct influence of Carmarthenshire’s LDP and are therefore all screened out of further consideration under this impact pathway, as the LDP is not likely to have a significant effect on habitat fragmentation at these sites.

 

Sites identified as potentially vulnerable to impacts on Marsh Fritillary butterfly are: Caeau Mynydd Mawr SAC and Preseli SAC on the basis that the LDP may potentially impact on the 2km habitat buffer around these SACs and must therefore be considered at the detailed screening stage.

Barbastelle Bat

With regards to potential offsite impacts on Barbastelle bats, the management plan for North Pembrokeshire Woodlands SAC states that ‘One threat to the barbastelle feature is that around half of the roosting sites and the majority of the foraging areas lie outside the SAC boundaries, as the boundaries were drawn up before the bats were discovered.’

To address this, the site management plan has the following conservation objectives for the Barbastelle bat feature:

‘there will be continual foraging habitat within a 16km radius around Pengelli Forest, including wooded stream valleys, low and overgrown hedgerows, scrub, overgrown pastures, broken stands and woodland (which can include conifer plantations).’

 ‘Roosts outside the [SAC] boundary will be left undisturbed, with no woodland management within 50m of a barbastelle roost and no clearance of shrub layer.’

As a result, detailed screening will need to be carried out to identify impacts any potential impacts on foraging habitat within a 16km radius around Pengelli, used by Barbastelle bats.

Greater and Lesser Horseshoe Bats

Both Greater and Lesser horseshoe bats are features of Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes, which is an important site for a number of bat species, and contains a range of important roosting sites and nursery roosts for a range of bat species.

The Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes Management Plan states that between 1-16km from the component SSSI ‘extensive hedgerow systems and tree-lined watercourses, linking roost sites and grasslands foraging areas to be retained within up to 16km of these roosts’.

It also states that an area between 7-16km from component SSSIs may be used for foraging, but flight routes may lead further connecting to other roost sites. And that All existing roosts known to CCW should be maintained and there should be no physical deterioration in or disturbance of these sites, or loss or of roosting opportunity within 1-16 km radius of the key breeding roosts within the SAC.’

Pembrokeshire Bat Site and Bosherton Lakes SAC sits more than 16km outside of Carmarthenshire’s border and therefore will not have any offsite impacts that will have a significant effect on this objective. However, it is relevant to this assessment that the management plan does make reference to cumulative records, which show that Greater horseshoe bats utilise roosts throughout the West Wales region, including Carmarthenshire.

Offsite impacts as a result of the LDP are therefore not considered to have a likely significant effect on Lesser Bat species, which are screened out of further assessment. Records would need to be checked to inform the screening of any such areas that are considered for development with regards to potential threats to greater horseshoe bats, and as such this will be taken forward for detailed screening.

European Otters

European otters are designated features of a number of European sites considered for screening within this document, including River Tywi, River Teifi, Cleddau Rivers, Carmarthenshire Bay and Estuaries, Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes, Pembrokeshire Marine, River Wye and River Usk SACs. Management plans for all of the aforementioned sites highlight that otters ‘may be affected by developments that affect resting and breeding sites outside of SAC boundaries’.

With regards to riverine SACs, the management plans state that ‘otters require sufficient undisturbed riparian habitat for breeding and resting to be maintained in areas adjacent to the SACs’ and that in urban areas focus is often placed on maintaining the river as a ‘communication corridor’ without considering the requirement of the surrounding supporting habitats, which enable the river corridor to function efficiently. Therefore,

One threat of particular relevance is an increase in road use, as otter road deaths have been highlighted as having a potentially significant impact on populations within river catchments.

It is also highly likely that otters travel between water courses and along the coastline, utilising inland watercourses for breeding and coastal areas for foraging. Otters are known to utilise most areas of the coastline within and adjacent to both Pembrokeshire Marine and Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries SACs and it is likely that otters present at a particular site are part of the wider population, with no site completely isolated. Of relevance to this assessment is the emphasised links between the coastal SAC’s and both Tywi and Cleddau river SACs, both of which fall within Carmarthenshire’s boundary

This indicates otters a highly mobile between the aforementioned SACs and as such are at risk of impacts as a result of the LDP, outside of SAC boundaries.

In light of this, detailed screening will need to be undertaken to identify any site allocations which may impact on the use of suitable areas of land outside the SAC boundary by otters.

 

Bottlenose Dolphin and Grey Seal

Neither Bottlenose dolphin nor Grey seal species utilise any of the waterways that lie within the plan area as part of their natural range. However, upstream water quality issues within the rivers Cleddau or Teifi have the potential to negatively impact on both species within Cardigan Bay SAC and Pembrokeshire Marine SAC, as well as their natural prey. This will be addressed in more detail under the heading ‘affects associated with development’ and will be therefore not be considered further under this effect pathway.

 

SPA Bird Assemblages

The listed bird species of the Burry Inlet and Carmarthen Bay SPAs  are also considered as ‘mobile’, as at high tide many of the wading species are likely to seek refuge in supporting habitat outside of the SPA boundary. This is due to habitats above mean high water becoming too crowded or disturbed by roosting birds, when birds that utilise intertidal habitats are forced out by the incoming tide. Therefore, the birds will, at certain time, be required to utilise supporting habitats outside of the SPA, which often include arable land or recreational playing fields. In absence of any evidence to the contrary, any suitable land within 1km inshore of the SPAs may be used as supporting habitat by bird species at high tide or during inclement weather.

 

Records will need to be checked to inform the screening of any such areas that are considered for development and will be considered in further detailed screening.

Recreational Effects

The effects of recreational pressure on SACs and SPAs are primarily related to damage to habitats and disturbance to species for which the site is designated. Damage to habitats usually arise as a result of trampling, which over a period of time can cause paths and tracks to become established and subsequently widened. The wearing of paths from use can also cause or accelerate erosion leading to further habitat damage. Increased access can also increase the likelihood of invasive, non-native species being introduced into the SAC.

Disturbance and/or impacts on species in SACs and SPAs are largely as a result of increased use of the sites, which can lead to an increase in activities such as dog walking, recreational fishing, as well as eco-tourism activities, recreational boating and pollution associated with anthropogenic use of a site. Recreational effects on species will be addressed in more detail under the heading ‘Species disturbance effects’.

Section 9 of the preferred strategy states that the strategic growth option on which the strategy is based would result in a population change of + 16,567, which represents a population growth of +9.4% over the plan period. Unless development occurs in very close proximity to a European site it can be assumed, on a precautionary basis, that LDP allocations will result in a proportional 9.4% increase in visitor numbers over the plan period.

7 sites are identified as being potentially sensitive to recreational pressures. It is considered that in relation to the potential effects from recreation associated with overall population growth, current management of site activities will be able to ensure that sites are able to absorb the anticipated overall increase of approx. 0.63% in visitor numbers per year without any likely significant effects to conservation objectives.

Any effects associated with development in close proximity to a European site, which may generate effects with regards to increasing recreational pressure, will be considered in further detailed screening.

A summary of the preliminary screening of European sites identified as potentially vulnerable to effects of recreation are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to recreational effects

Sites identified as vulnerable

Further screening required?

Reasoning

SAC

 

 

River Teifi

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay Dunes

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cwm – Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

SPA/Ramsar

Burry Inlet SPA

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay SPA/Ramsar

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Elenydd – Mallaen SPA

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

 

Effects as a result of development: Water abstraction

Development places an increased demand on water supplies and the potential impacts of increased abstraction rates on surface water and groundwater levels can represent likely significant effects on European sites.

Water supply for new development can be abstracted from a source at some distance from the actual development location. As a result the potential effects of development through increased abstraction must be informed by the Dwr Cymru Welsh Water (DCWW) Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP)

Abstraction is licenced by Natural Resources Wales (NRW), who are the competent authority under the Habitats Regulations, and therefore it is primarily the responsibility of NRW to avoid adverse effects on European sites as a result of abstraction. However, the HRA of the Deposit Plan must recognise that the consenting and management options available to NRW are limited by water availability. Welsh Water has a duty to supply new development and there is a tension within the HRA if it assumes the NRW can simply consent any associated increases in abstraction in such a way to avoid adverse effects on European Sites.

It is the responsibility of the HRA of the deposit plan to ensure that the allocation of housing as a result of the Preferred Strategy is done in such a way that there are viable options available to both NRW and DCWW to meet water supply demands and avoid adverse effects on the integrity of any European sites.

The water resources requirements for Carmarthenshire are supplied entirely by DCWW, and the county lies within the Tywi conjunctive use system (Tywi WRZ). The draft DCWW Resource Management Plan[1] (WRMP) predicts that the Tywi WRZ will be in surplus throughout the period of the LDP[2], based on the projected increase in household numbers within Carmarthenshire of 14.6% between 2014 and 2039[3], with an increase from 82,751 to 89,532 between 2018 and 2033[4]. This overall growth forecast exceeds the growth provided for in the Preferred Strategy of 11.7%.

NRW and the EA undertook a detailed review of a DCWW abstraction licences and concluded that there were twenty one sites where potential adverse effects upon protected species could not be discounted. However the WRMP states that the required amendments to abstraction licences have been agreed in order to ensure that there are at sustainable levels now, and in the future, and have been built in to the baseline deployable output calculations.

DCWW were also responsible for undertaking a Habitats Regulations Assessment of the most recent Water Resources Management Plan. This included consideration of the abstraction licence review undertaken by EA and NRW and concluded that ‘the WRMP will have no adverse effects, alone or in combination on any European sites’ at the plan level. On the basis of the detailed HRA assessment undertaken by DCWW, which was informed by the NRW and EA review of consents work and subject to a wide consultation with the statutory agencies, it is reasonable for Carmarthenshire to adopt the conclusions for the purpose of the HRA of the preferred strategy and the Deposit plan. Further work would be a duplication of work undertaken by NRW and DCWW and as the most appropriate authorities in relation to the potential effects connected with water supply, any further work by Carmarthenshire is not considered to be appropriate or necessary.

Therefore, it is concluded that the preferred strategy will have no likely significant effect on any European site in respect of effects associated with water supply. Such effects can be excluded on the basis of the objective information available through the EA and NRW review of consents work and the most recent HRA of the DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

A summary of the preliminary screening of European sites identified as potentially vulnerable to effects of abstraction have been screened in Table 8.


 

Table 8 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to increased water abstraction

Sites identified as vulnerable

Further screening required?

Reasoning

SAC

River Teifi

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

River Tywi

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Cleddau Rivers

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Caeau Mynydd Mawr

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Cardigan Bay

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Carmarthen Bay Dunes

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Cernydd Carmel

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Mynydd Epynt

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Preseli

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

River Wye

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

River Usk

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Yerbeston Tops

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Pembrokeshire Marine

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Gower Commons

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

SPA/Ramsar

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Carmarthen Bay SPA

No

Based on most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

 

 

 

Effects as a result of development: Discharge of wastewater

Development will generate wastewater which needs to be treated prior to disposal. The preferred option for the disposal of wastewater is via connection to the mains sewerage network and treatment at the relevant wastewater treatment works (WWTW).

Discharge of wastewater by DCWW is licenced by the Environment Agency (EA), who is also a competent authority under the Habitats Regulations. Whilst the avoidance of any adverse effects on European Sites as a result of discharge consents is principally the responsibility of NRW, the HRA of the Deposit Plan must recognise that the consenting and management options available to NRW are limited by both capacity within infrastructure and the existing pollutant levels in the receiving environment. DCWW has a duty to accept wastewater from new development, when connection to the mains sewer system is viable; there is a tension within the HRA if it assumes either that DCWW can accept any associated increases in wastewater irrespective of limitations in capacity, or that such capacity issues can be resolved by NRW consenting options which avoid adverse effects on European sites.

DCWW are under a general duty under section 94 of the Water Industry Act 1991 to effectually drain the area. If additional capacity is required in the existing systems then they are legally obliged to provide it through their normal funding mechanisms. This general duty extends to sewerage systems as well as sewage treatment works[5].

It is the purpose of the HRA to ensure that the allocation of housing as part of the Preferred Strategy is done in such a way as to ensure that there are viable options available to both NRW and DCWW to meet wastewater drainage demands, without adverse effects on the integrity of any European sites.

Under Regulation 63 of the Habitats Regulations, Natural Resources Wales (NRW) are responsible for ensuring potential effects from treated wastewater on European Designated sites are considered as part of a Review of all existing Consents (RoC). Under the RoC, discharge consents and water abstraction licences will have been considered to ensure that there were no detrimental impacts on the conservation interests in designated sites a result of these consents.

The final HRA of the LDP deposit plan will need to seek clarification from both NRW and DCWW over the potential capacity within the current post RoC discharge consent limits for further growth. Where allocations can be accommodated within the post-RoC discharge consent limits, it can be considered that there will be no likely significant effects on European Designated sites.

If the allocated development might exceed available permitted capacity, then a new or modified permit is likely to be required at the waste water treatment works in question to provide for the increased demand, and the HRA would need to consider whether it would be feasible for such additional capacity to be provided without any adverse effects on the integrity of any European Sites.

 

Table 9 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to effects on water quality

Sites identified as vulnerable

Further screening required?

Reasoning

SAC

 

 

River Teifi

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

River Tywi

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Cleddau Rivers

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Cardigan Bay

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Cernydd Carmel

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Pembrokeshire Marine

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Cardigan Bay

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

SPA/Ramsar

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Carmarthen Bay

Yes

Further information required from NRW regarding RoC. Further consideration required in detailed assessment.

Increased development: effects of air pollution

Air quality is influenced by levels of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3) and ozone (O3), as well as persistent organic compounds (POPs), heavy metals and particulate matter (PM10).

Carmarthenshire currently has three Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs), in Llandeilo (NO2), Llanelli (NO2) and Carmarthen (NO2). AQMA’s also exist in some neighbouring counties; Swansea (NO2), Neath Port Talbot (PM10) and two in Pembrokeshire (NO2).

Housing development tends to be linked with increased traffic and therefore increased traffic related emissions. Emissions from traffic have been shown to have impacts on vegetation within 200m of the road edge[6][7]. Beyond 200m, no significant adverse effects associated with traffic emissions (including deposition) have been observed in scientific studies. This is likely due to the fact that at this distance, pollutants contribute to background levels of atmospheric pollution, and disperse to an extent that they have no observable impacts on ground level vegetation at a local scale.

On this basis, it is considered that there will be no likely significant effects on any sites more than 200m outside of Carmarthenshire’s boundary.

However, additional contributions that may arise from increased traffic could be significant where the site is known to be sensitive to such effects and where appropriate critical loads and levels are either exceeded or approaching exceedance. The Air Pollution Information Service (APIS) data shows that current air quality levels already exceed the critical loads set for many of the habitat types at European sites in Carmarthenshire (Appendix 2.).

All other sites considered sensitive to air pollution will be taken forward for more detailed screening, however further consideration of potential effects is required only where site allocations may lead to increased traffic emissions within 200m of identified sites . This is summarised in Table 10.

Table 10 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to effects of air pollution

Sites identified as vulnerable

Further screening required?

Reasoning

SAC

 

 

Caeau Mynydd Mawr

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Carmarthen Bay Dunes

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cernydd Carmel

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cleddau Rivers

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Gower Ash Woods

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Gower Common

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Gweunydd Blaencleddau

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Mynydd Epynt

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Pembrokeshire Bat Sites

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Pembrokeshire Marine

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Preseli

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Rhos Llawr-cwrt

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Yerbeston Tops

No

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

SPA/Ramsar

Carmarthen Bay

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Effects of species disturbance, noise and light pollution effects

Effects of this nature are largely associated with the physical proximity of development to a sensitive European site. Such effects include visual and noise disturbance associated with issues such as construction, lighting and the presence of development, and will be considered further in detailed assessment of site allocations. It is considered that the LDP is not likely to have significant effects on sites outside of Carmarthenshire’s boundary and so these sites are screened out of further consideration.

Sites sensitive to effects of species disturbance, noise and light pollution and the result of the preliminary screening assessment is summarised in Table 11

Table 11 Preliminary screening of European Sites identified as vulnerable to effects of disturbance, noise and light pollution effects.

Sites identified as vulnerable

Screening in/out

Reasoning

SAC

Afon Teifi

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Afon Tywi

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cleddau Rivers

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cardigan Bay

No

Outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Gower Commons

No

Outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

Gower Ash Woods

No

Outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

No

Outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

Pembrokeshire Marine

No

Outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

Pembrokeshire Bat sites

No

Outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

River Wye

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

River Usk

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

SPA/Ramsar

Carmarthen Bay

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

Yes

Further consideration required in detailed assessment

 


 

Summary

Having considered each of the potential effect mechanisms and considered them at a generic level in relation to the overall growth provided for within the preferred strategy, the conclusions for further detailed screening work in relation to individual allocations are detailed in Table 12

Table 12 Summary of the preliminary screening based on overall growth projection of Preferred Strategy.

Potential Effect Mechanism

Summary of generic level screening

Further screening requirements in detailed screening of specific allocations

Aquatic Environment

Effects only likely where development is in close proximity to a water course that flows into/out of a site

To identify such allocations

Marine Environment

Effects considered unlikely, but screened in on precautionary basis

To ensure no such effects occur

Coast

Effects considered unlikely, but screened in on precautionary basis

To ensure no such effects occur

Mobile Species

·         Marsh Fritillary Butterfly - Any potential development within 2km of Caeau Mynydd Mawr SAC or Preseli SAC should be subject to further assessment.

·         Barbastelle Bat – Any potential development within 16km radius of Pengelli Forest should be subject to further assessment.

·         Greater Horseshoe Bats – Presence records should be considered to inform screening of site allocations.

·         European Otters – Any land suitable for use by otters that may support SAC populations will need to be considered

·         SPA Bird Assemblages – Any suitable land 1km inshore of an SPA should be subject to further assessment

To identify such allocations

Recreation

Recreational effects associated with development in close proximity to a European site, will require further assessment.

To identify such allocations

Development: Abstraction

Effects associated with water supply have been screened out based on HRA of DCWW water resources management plan

No further screening required

Development: Waste water

Effects associated with waste water discharges require further information from NRW on the post-RoC capacity. Only allocated development might exceed available permitted capacity will be considered to have LSE.

To identify such allocations

Development: Air pollution

Only development which leads to increased traffic on roads within 200m of identified sensitive sites.

To identify any such allocations

Disturbance, noise and light pollution

Only development in close proximity to a European Site requires further consideration

To identify such allocations

 

Five sites identified in Task 1 have been screened out of further detailed assessment as all potential impact pathways have been screened out at this preliminary screening stage. This is summarised in Table 13.

Table 13 Summary of preliminary screening of sites where no likely significant effects have been identified.

European site

Designation

Scanned In

Screened Out

Yerbeston Tops

SAC

Mobile Species – Marsh Fritillary Butterfly

More than 2km outside of the direct influence of Carmarthenshire’s LDP

Abstraction

Based on no LSE being identified in most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Air pollution

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Rhos Llawr-cwrt

SAC

Mobile Species – Marsh Fritillary

More than 2km outside of the direct influence of Carmarthenshire’s LDP

Air pollution

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Gower Ash Woods

SAC

Air pollution

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Species disturbance

Effects only considered likely in close proximity. Site outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

Gower Commons

SAC

Mobile Species – Marsh Fritillary Butterfly

More than 2km outside of the direct influence of Carmarthenshire’s LDP

Abstraction

Based on no LSE being identified in most recent HRA of DCWW Water Resources Management Plan.

Air pollution

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

Species disturbance

Effects only considered likely in close proximity. Site outside of Carmarthenshire boundary

Mynydd Epynt

SAC

Air pollution

More than 200m outside Carmarthenshire boundary

 

 


 

Screening of Preferred Strategy

The Carmarthenshire Revised Preferred Strategy sets the long term vision for growth and development in Carmarthenshire (excluding that area within the Brecon Beacons National Park) and the strategic objectives and the strategic land use polices to deliver that vision. However, the Preferred Strategy is not the full LDP, rather it sets out broad strategic principles for development in our area. The full Plan is called the Deposit LDP and will contain detailed and specific policies as well as site-specific allocations.

The Preferred Strategy was subject to an initial screening process, the aim of which is to identify at a strategic level, any parts of the plan or its associated policies that will not have an effect on European sites and those that have the potential to have a likely significant effect. If LSE are identified, they must be considered alone, and in combination.

The approach taken is in accordance with guidance for the appraisal of plans under the Habitats Directive, DTA Publications Limited, The Habitat Regulations Assessment Handbook[8] The effects associated with the Preferred Strategy can be identified as one of the following broad screening categories.

Category

Description

Screening Outcome

A

General statements of policy/general aspirations.

Screen Out

B

Policies listing general criteria for testing the acceptability/sustainability of proposals.

Screen Out

C

Proposal referred to but not proposed by the plan

Screen Out

D

Environmental protection/site safeguarding policy

Screen Out

E

Policies or proposals which steer change in such a way as to protect European sites from adverse effects

Screen Out

F

Policy that cannot lead to development or other change

Screen Out

G

Policy or proposal that could not have any conceivable effect on a site

Screen Out

H

Policy or proposal the (actual or theoretical) effects of which cannot undermine the conservation objectives (either alone or in combination with other aspects of this or other plans or projects)

Screen Out

I

Policy or proposal with a likely significant effect on a site alone

Screen In

J

Policy or proposal with an effect on a site but not likely to be significant alone, so need to check for likely significant effects in combination.

Check for in combination effects and re-categorised as K or L

K

Policy or proposal not likely to have significant effect either alone or in combination.

Screen out after in combination test

L

Policy or proposal likely to have a significant effect in combination

Screen in after in combination test

 

Chapters 1-6 of Preferred Strategy

For completeness, the Chapters 1-6 comprise introductory and contextual text and cannot possibly have any effects on any European Sites. They are therefore screened out of further assessment and are not considered further.

Chapters 7 and 8 of Preferred Strategy

One Carmarthenshire
 Carmarthenshire 2033 will be a place to start, live and age well within a healthy, safe and prosperous environment, where its rich cultural and environmental qualities are valued and respected.
 It will have prosperous, cohesive and sustainable communities providing increased opportunities, interventions and connections for people, places and organisations in both rural and urban parts of our County.
 It will have a strong economy that reflects its position as a confident and ambitious driver for the Swansea Bay City Region.
Chapter 7 outlines the draft vision for Carmarthenshire and is reported below.

The vision sets out a general aspiration and is not considered to result in any significant effects upon European sites. The vision is therefore screened out under category A.

Chapter 8 discusses the development of the strategic objectives, which are categorised under the following themes in alignment with Carmarthenshire’s well-being objectives:

§  Healthy Habits – People have a good quality of life and make healthy choices about their lives and environments

§  Early Intervention – To make sure that people have the right help at the right time; as and when they need it

§  Strong Connections – Strongly connected people, places and organisations that are able to adapt to change

§  Prosperous People and Places – To maximise opportunities for people and places in both urban and rural parts of the county

The objectives listed against each of the themes are detailed in Appendix 4. All of the objectives are considered to be screened out of the need for further assessment. The category against which each objective is considered to be screened out is given in brackets after each objective, as listed in Appendix 4.

Chapter 9 of Preferred Strategy

Chapter 9 contains text which summarises the findings of the growth and spatial options appraisal process. The appraisal process summarised within this chapters cannot possibly have any effect on any European sites and is therefore screened out of further assessment under Category B. The implications of the growth and spatial options will be further assessed within the detailed screening, where site allocations have been identified.

Chapter 11 of Preferred Strategy - Strategic Policies

There are 19 individual policies, and the screening conclusions for each policy are set out in Appendix 5 .

Screening of the strategic policies concluded that the majority of policies are unlikely to have significant effects on European sites alone, as they either seek the protection/enhancement of cultural heritage and the natural environment or set out design criteria for development proposals. For some policies, it was considered that potential impacts would be more appropriately assessed at the site allocation level, once the precise nature, scale and location of development is known.

A number of policies do not necessarily propose development, but support certain types of development which have the potential to impact on European designated sites. Policy SP13 – Protection and Enhancement of the Natural Environment – seeks to ensure development does not impact negatively on the natural environment, provides some mitigation to help minimise the impacts on European sites. Wording has been suggested to strengthen this policy, so that when it is considered alongside all other strategic polices, will mitigate for any potential significant likely impacts.

Table 14 summarises the screening outcome of the Strategic Policies. Policies SP1, SP3, SP4, SP6, SP16 and SP19 have been identified as having the potential for a likely significant effect alone on European sites. The significance of any impacts as a result of these policies is dependent on the precise location and scale of development, environmental pathways and sensitivities of receptors.

Table 14 Summary of preliminary screening of draft Strategic policies.

Policy

Screening Category

Initial Screening Outcome

SP1 – Strategic Growth

I

Screened In

SP2 – Retail and Town Centres

B

Screened Out

SP3 – Providing New Homes

I

Screened In

SP4 – Affordable Homes

I

Screened In

SP5 – Strategic Sites

C

Screened Out

SP6 – Employment and the Economy

I

Screened In

SP7 – Welsh Language and Culture

F

Screened Out

SP8 -  Infrastructure

B

Screened Out

SP9 – Gypsy and Traveller Provision

H

Screened Out

SP10 – The Visitor Economy

A

Screened Out

SP11 – Placemaking, Sustainability and High Quality Design

B

Screened Out

SP12 – Rural Development

A

Screened Out

SP13 – Protection and Enhancement of the Natural Environment

D

Screened Out

SP14 – Protection and Enhancement of the Built and Historic Environment

D

Screened Out

SP15 – Climate Change

B

Screened Out

SP16 – Sustainable Distribution – Settlement Framework

I

Screened In

SP17 – Transport and Accessibility

B

Screened Out

SP18 – Mineral resources

G

Screened Out

SP19 – Waste Management

I

Screened In


 

3.3 Task 3: Consideration of effects in combination with other plans, programmes and projects.

It is a requirement of Article 6(3) of the Habitats Directive that HRA examines the potential for plans and projects to have a significant effect either individually or ‘in combination’ with other plans, programmes & projects (PPPs). Undertaking an assessment of other PPPs has required a pragmatic approach given the extensive range of PPPs underway in the surrounding region. The approach taken was cognisant of the emphasis in the forthcoming WAG guidance that considering the potential for in-combination effects is core to delivering robust/ precautionary HRA.

When considering other PPPs attention was focused on those aimed at delivering planned spatial growth with the most significant being those that seek to provide, housing, employment and infrastructure. The review considered the most relevant plans including those listed below and detailed in Appendix XX:

Local Development Plans

·         Pembrokeshire County Council Local Development Plan (2013 – 2021) – Adopted

·         Swansea Local Development Plan (2010 – 2025) – Deposit

·         Ceredigion Local Development Plan (2021 – 2033) – Adopted

·         Powys Local Development Plan (2011 – 2026) – Adopted

·         Brecon Beacons National Park Local Development Plan (2007 – 2022) – Adopted

National

·         The Wales Spatial Plan (2008 update)

·         The Wales Transport Strategy (2008)

·         Wales Coastal Tourism Strategy (2008)

·         Welsh Government Strategy for Tourism2013 – 2020

·         Active Travel Action Plan (2016)

·         A Walking and Cycling Action Plan for Wales (2009 – 2013)

·         Dwr Cymru Welsh Water – Water Resources Management Plan (2015 – 2040)

·         Dwr Cymru Welsh Water – Draft Water Resources Management Plan 2019

·         Towards Zero Waste – Overarching Waste Strategy for Wales

Regional

·         The Swansea Bay City Regional Economic Regeneration Strategy 2013 – 2030

·         Swansea Bay City Deal 2017

·         Joint Local Transport Plan for South West Wales (2015 – 2020)

·         Lavernock Point to St Ann’s Head Shoreline Management Plan 2 (2012)

·         Waste Planning Monitoring Report(s) for the South West Wales Region

·         Regional Technical Statement Regional Aggregate Working Parties (2014)

Local

·         Moving Forward in Carmarthenshire: the next 5 years (2018)

·         Transformations: A strategic Regeneration Plan for Carmarthenshire 2015 – 2030

·         Affordable Homes Delivery Plan 2016 -2020: Delivery more homes for the people of Carmarthenshire 2015 -2030

·         Carmarthenshire Destination Management Plan 2015 -2020

·         Local Flood Risk Management Strategy (2013)

·         Flood Risk Management Plan for the Western Wales River Basin District

The findings of this review were used when screening the Strategic Policies to consider if the policies had the potential to act in combination with other plans, programmes and projects to have significant effects on European Sites. The assessment identified that Strategic Policies SP1, SP3, SP4, SP6, SP16 and SP19 have the potential for significant in combination effect on European sites.


 

3.4 Task 4: Screening Assessment Summary

In line with the screening requirement of the Habitats Regulations, an assessment was undertaken to determine the potential significant effects of the Draft Pre Deposit preferred strategy on the integrity of the 25 European sites that lie outside and within the plan/proposal boundaries. The screening decision was informed by:

 

·         The information gathered on the European sites Appendix 1;

·         The review of the Preferred Strategy and its likely impacts ; which included an analysis of the potential environmental impacts generated by the development activities directed by the LDP and;

·         The review of other relevant plans and programmes – Appendix 3;

·         WAG guidance which indicates that HRA for plans is typically broader and more strategic than project level HRA and that it is proportionate to the available detail of the plan

 

The detail of the main screening of draft Strategic Policies is set out in Appendix 5. In summary, the screening assessment found that the majority of Preferred Strategy Policies are unlikely to have significant effects on European sites either alone or in combination. A number of recommendations have been made to strengthen the mitigation provided by specific policies and should be incorporated into the Preferred Strategy to ensure that these policies (Strategic Policies SP1, SP3, SP4, SP6, SP16 and SP19 ) have no likely significant effects on European sites either alone or in combination.

At this stage, these policies have the potential for significant effects both alone and in combination with other plans, programmes and projects. At this stage the significance of the effects is uncertain as further detail on the nature, scale and location of development is required. The next stage of the revised LDP (Deposit) will provide further detailed policies and site allocations that will allow a more comprehensive assessment of the impacts and how they may affect European sites. It is recommended that further screening work is carried out for the revised LDP once Deposit Policies and Site Allocations are available.

The Preferred Strategy already contains policies that seek to protect and enhance European sites as well as minimise the impacts of proposed development. When developing detailed Deposit policies the Councils should seek to minimise the potential impacts identified through this screening assessment.

This HRA Report is a high-level preliminary screening of the Preferred Strategy. It identifies those policies which would clearly have no effects upon European sites enabling these to be ‘screened out’ of any further assessment. The focus of further, more detailed assessment would only be applied to allocation sites, or policies, where a likely significant effect could be possible. A further detailed screening will be carried out on the next iteration of the LDP (i.e. the Deposit LDP) when the specific policies have been prepared and a full list of allocation sites has been agreed. Allocation sites and policies included for further detailed screening would then be reviewed in more detail based on the available information.

 


 


Appendicies

Appendix 1. Conservation objectives of sites identified as within 15km buffer zone of Carmarthenshire.

Site name : Afon Tywi/ River Tywi SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN687263

JNCC Site Code: UK0013010

Size: 363.45 ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex II species primary reason for selection

Otter Lutra lutra

Favourable: Maintained

·         The population of otters in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term and reflects the natural carrying capacity of the habitat within the SAC, as determined by natural levels of prey abundance and associated territorial behaviour.

·         The natural range of otters in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         The safe movement and dispersal of individuals around the SAC is facilitated by the provision, where necessary, of suitable riparian habitat, and underpasses, ledges, fencing etc. at road bridges and other artificial barriers.

 

Twaite Shad Alosa fallax

Unfavourable: Unclassified (May 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the watercourse as defined here XX must be met

·         The population of the feature in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         There is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain the feature’s population in the SAC on a long-term basis.

 

Annex II species qualifying feature

Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2011)

River lamprey Lampetra fluviatili

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2011)

Brook lamprey Lampetra planeri

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2011)

Allis shad Alosa alosa

Unfavourable: Unclassified (May 2012)

Bullhead Cottus gobio

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)


 

Site name : Caeau Mynydd Mawr SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN575121

JNCC Site Code: UK0030105

Size: 25.06 ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats qualifying features

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils Molinion caeruleae

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2015)

·         The Molinia meadow feature (M24) will occupy between 25% and 80% of the total site area.

·         The remainder of the site will be other semi-natural habitat.

·         The following plants will be common in the Molinia meadows: purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea; meadow thistle Cirsium dissectum; devil’s bit scabious Succisa pratensis; carnation sedge Carex panicea and tormentil Potentilla erecta.

·         Cross-leaved heath Erica tetralix and common heather Calluna vulgaris will also be common in some areas.

·         Rushes should not be allowed to spread and species indicative of agricultural modification, such as perennial rye grass Lolium perenne and white clover Trifolium repens, will be largely absent from the Molinia meadow.

·         Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent from the Molinia meadow.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Annex II species primary reason for selection

Marsh fritillary butterfly Euphydryas aurinia

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2015)

·         The population will be viable in the long term, acknowledging the extreme population fluctuations of the species.

·         Habitats on the site will be in optimal condition to support the metapopulational.

·         The SAC populations will be the core of the metapopulation. The metapopulation will consist of the SAC populations plus populations breeding on land within c. 2 kilometres of the SAC boundary.

·         At least 13 ha across the three component SSSIs will be marshy grassland suitable for supporting marsh fritillary, with Succisa pratensis present and only a low cover of scrub.

·         At least 6 ha of this will be good condition marsh fritillary breeding habitat, where, for at least 80% of sample points, the tussocky vegetation is within the range of 12-25 cms tall and Succisa pratensis is present within a 50 cm radius sample point. Scrub (>0.5 m tall) covers no more than 10% of area.

·         At least another 7 ha of this will be suitable condition marsh fritillary breeding habitat where Succisa pratensis is occasional/frequent/abundant and vegetation height is usually 12-25 cms. Scrub (> 0.5 m tall) will cover no more than 10% of the total area.

·         The marshy grassland will be well sheltered by hedgerows and mature trees.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions are under control.


 

Site name : Cernydd Carmel SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN592161

JNCC Site Code: UK0030070

Size: 361.14 ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitat primary reason for selection

Turloughs

 

Favourable: Unclassified (Sept 2011)

·         The turlough will fill and empty according to the natural seasonal fluctuations in the underlying aquifer. It will typically fill with water in the autumn-spring period and empty during the summer months.

·         A natural pattern of vegetation zones will be apparent during the dry phase of the turlough, as determined by micro-topographical variation in the turlough basin in relation to the main swallow hole.

·         The following vegetation zones, together with typical associated species, will be present: hydrophytic bryophyte zone; Equisetum fluviatile zone; Carex vesicaria zone; Phalaris arundinacea zone; Salix cinerea-Galium palustre woodland zone.

·         Alien plant species such as Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranuculoides, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Azolla filiculoides will be absent

·         All factors affecting the achievement of the above conditions, including water quality, water levels and scrub development, will be under control.

Annex I habitat qualifying feature

North Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Favourable: Unclassified (Sept 2016)

·          Northern Atlantic wet heath will occupy at least 6ha of Cernydd Carmel SAC.

·         The wet heath will have a high cover (>25%) of dwarf shrubs, including heather Calluna vulgaris, cross-leaved heath Erica tetralix and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus.

·         Typical associates will include western gorse Ulex galli and Molinia caerulea, but not high cover.

·         Bog mosses Sphagnum spp. will be prominent in the sward.

·         Scrub and bracken will be largely absent.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions, including grazing and scrub/bracken encroachment, are under control. 

European dry heaths

Destroyed: Partially (Sept 2016)

·         European dry heath will occupy at least 19ha of Cernydd Carmel SAC.

·         The dry heath will be dominated by varying mixtures of heather Calluna vulgaris, bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and western gorse Ulex gallii, although U.gallii itself should not exceed 50% cover.

·         Scrub, bracken, bramble, thistles, tall rushes, large docks and nettles will be largely absent.

·         Bare ground will not exceed 10% cover.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions, including grazing and scrub/bracken encroachment, are under control.

Active raised bogs

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2016)

·         Active raised bog will cover at least 13ha of Cernydd Carmel SAC.

·         At least five raised bog peatland units will be present, occupying a series of peaty depressions within the Millstone Grit ridge.

·         The mires will support a specialist bog flora including heather Calluna vulgaris, cross-leaved heath Erica tetralix, deergrass Scirpus cespitosus, hare’s-tail cotton grass Eriophorum vaginatum common cotton-grass E.angustifolium, bog asphodel Barthecium ossifragum and round-leaved sundew Drosera rotundifolia.

·         Bog mosses Sphagnum spp. Will be abundant, while purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea and other grasses will be scarce.

·         The mire surfaces will display a characteristic hummock and hollow topography, with lawns of Sphagnum moss dominating the wet hollows.

·         Scrub and bracken will be largely absent.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions, including water levels, nutrient levels and grazing, will be under control.

Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines

Favourable: Unclassified (Jul 2013)

·         Tilio-Acerion woodland will occupy approx. 44ha of Cernydd Carmel SAC.

·         The Tilio-Acerion woodland will occur as a patchwork of small woods with areas of grassland between, forming a characteristic element of the historic landscape pattern of Cernydd Carmel. The distribution of woods will mirror the pattern of woodland mapped in 1994.

·         Within the high forest areas, between 10 and 25% of the woodland will comprise open glades or canopy gaps, although the location of glades/canopy gaps may vary over time.

·         Trees and shrubs of a wide range of ages and sizes should be present, including functionally mature canopy trees, young trees and an active shrub layer.

·         Regeneration of locally native trees/shrubs will be plentiful

·         The canopy will comprise varying mixtures of locally native species including ash Fraximus excelsior, oak Quercus spp., goat willow Salix caprea, yew Taxus baccata and wych elm Ulmus glabra. Typical shrub layer species will include hazel Corylus avellana, hawthorn Crateagus monogyna, blackthorn Prunus spinosa, spindle Euonymus europaeus and dogwood Rhamnus catharticus. Non-native species including sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus and beech Fagus sylvatica will be largely absent.

·         The field layer will comprise a rich mixture of woodland herbs including Ranunculus ficaria, Circaea lutetiana, Galium odoratum, Allium ursinum, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Mercurialis perennis, Conopodium majus, Paris quadrifolia, Lamiastrum galeobdolon, Conopodium majus, Phyllitis scolopendrium, Arum maculatum and Anemone nemorosa.

·         Dense bramble will be largely absent.

·         Within the high forest areas, dead wood will be present in the form of standing and fallen trunks/limbs.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of the above conditions, including grazing and browsing, will be under control.


 

Site name : Carmarthen Bay Dunes SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN285074

JNCC Site Code: UK0020019

Size: 1206.32 ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats primary reasons for selection

Embyonic shifting dunes

Favourable: Maintained (Jul 2007)

·         Natural processes will be allowed to determine the time and place when the strandline and embryonic dunes exist. These processes will not be impeded by direct or indirect human intervention.

·         A strandline will be present at least one year in every five within the areas identified

·         Embryonic dunes will be present on the seaward side of the mobile frontal dune ridge at least one year in every three

·         All of the factors affecting the feature are under control

“Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (“”white dunes””)”

Favourable: Maintained (Jul 2007)

·         Shifting dunes will exist as part of the dynamic natural processes which create the dune systems.

·         There will be an interaction between the three dune systems such that the natural process of erosion in some parts and accretion in others will continue without direct or indirect human disturbance.

·         Shifting dunes will comprise a significant part of the dune system but will increase and decrease in extent and location as natural processes determine the landscape of the dune systems

·         At least two of the three sites in the SAC satisfy the limits outlined in the performance indicator below.

·         All of the factors affecting the feature are under control.

“Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (“grey dunes””)”

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2015)

·         Fixed dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes) will occur where older, shifting dunes become more stabilised and in early successional stages become colonised by lichens and other species indicative of the transition from less mobile habitat.

·         The habitat will encompass a range of successional stages throughout the area, determined by patterns of natural factors and grazing.

·         Grey dunes will comprise a significant part of the dune system but will increase and decrease in extent and location as natural processes determine the landscape of the dune systems

·         All factors are under management control.

Dunes with Salix repens ssp. Argentea (Salicion arenariae)

Unfavourable Unclassified (Aug 2007)

·         Dunes with Salix repens and humid dune slacks will occur as part of the dune system, their location will be determined by natural processes and appropriate grazing management

·         A range of successional stages will be found in both features

·         Factors affecting the features will be under control

Humid dune slacks

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2015)

Annex II Species primary reason for selection :

 

Narrow-mouthed whorl snail

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2016)

·         Sufficient suitable habitat is present to support the populations

·         The factors affecting the feature are under control

Petalwort

Unfavourable: Unclassified (May 2016)

·         The species will be found where conditions are suitable in sufficient numbers to form a viable and sustainable population

·         The population will vary from year to year depending on conditions, especially in drier years, but the long term population will remain steady and sustainable

·         Suitable dune slacks will have patches of bare ground that is being colonised by jelly lichens (Collema spp.) and Barbula mosses.

·         The factors affecting the feature are under control

Fen orchid

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Oct 2014)

·         Sufficient suitable habitat is present to support the populations

·         The factors affecting the feature are under control


 

Site name : Afon Teifi SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN515508

JNCC Site Code: UK0012670

Size: 715.58 ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats primary reasons for selection

 

Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation.

Favourable: Unclassified (Sept 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in XX above must be met.

·         The natural range of the plant communities represented within this feature should be stable or increasing in the SAC.

·         The area covered by the feature within its natural range in the SAC should be stable or increasing.

·         The conservation status of the feature’s typical species should be favourable. The typical species are defined with reference to the species composition of the appropriate JNCC river vegetation type for the particular river reach, unless differing from this type due to natural variability when other typical species may be defined as appropriate.

Annex I habitats qualifying feature

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea

Favourable: Unclassified (Sept 2003)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The Littorelletea uniflorae aquatic upland lake community will be present in all five of the Teifi Pools (Llyn Hir, Llyn Teifi, Llyn Egnant, Llyn y Gorlan and Llyn Bach), and will be self-maintaining on a long-term basis.

·         A fully developed Littorelletea community will be present in Llyn Hir, including all of the component species typical of the SAC feature, as represented in the Afon Teifi SAC.

·         For each of Llyn Teifi, Llyn Egnant, Llyn y Gorlan and Llyn Bach, the extent and species composition of the Littorelletea community will be stable or increasing in range. There will be no deterioration in the conservation status of the feature as represented in these lakes.

Annex II species qualifying feature

Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2016)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in XX above must be met

·         The population of the feature in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         There is, and will continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain the feature’s population in the SAC on a long-term basis.

Annex II Species primary reason for selection

Brook lamprey Lampetra planeri

Favourable: Unclassified (Oct 2013)

River lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis

Favourable: Unclassified (Oct 2013)

Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

 

Favourable: Unclassified (Jan 2016)

Bullhead Cottus gobio

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Otter Lutra lutra

Favourable: Maintained (Mar 2010)

·         The population of otters in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term and reflects the natural carrying capacity of the habitat within the SAC, as determined by natural levels of prey abundance and associated territorial behaviour.

·         The natural range of otters in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         The safe movement and dispersal of individuals around the SAC is facilitated by the provision, where necessary, of suitable riparian habitat, and underpasses, ledges, fencing etc. at road bridges and other artificial barriers.

Floating water-plantain Luronium natans

Favourable: Unclassified (Sept 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in XX above must be met.

·         The floating water-plantain populations will be viable throughout their current distribution in the SAC (maintaining themselves on a long-term basis). Each floating water-plantain population must be able to complete sexual and/or vegetative reproduction successfully. Potential for genetic exchange between floating water-plantain populations, in and/or outside the SAC, must be evident in the long-term. Dispersal of floating water-plantain must be unhindered.

·         The SAC will have sufficient suitable habitat to support floating water-plantain populations within their current distribution. There will be no contraction of the current floating water-plantain distribution in the SAC.


 

Site name : Afonydd Cleddau/ Cleddau Rivers SAC

Location Grid Reference: SM938249

JNCC Site Code: UK0030074

Size: 751.71 ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats qualifying feature

Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Calliticho-Batrachion vegetation.

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the watercourse as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The natural range of the plant communities represented within this feature should be stable or increasing in the SAC.

·         The area covered by the feature within its natural range in the SAC should be stable or increasing.

·         The conservation status of the feature’s typical species should be favourable condition. The typical species are defined with reference to the species composition of the appropriate JNCC river vegetation type for the particular river reach, unless differing from this type due to natural variability when other typical species may be defined as appropriate.

Active raised bogs

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Oct 2012)

·         On the mire expanse there are at least 3 of Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, Eriophorum angustifolium, E.vaginatum & Trichophorum cespitosum constant, with a combined cover not exceeding 80%

·         · No single species > 50% cover

·         · At least one of Andromeda polifolia, Drosera rotundifolia, Empetrum nigrum, Narthecium ossifragum and Vaccinium oxycoccos occurs at least frequently

·         · On the mire expanse only there are at least 2 of the following spp. constant, with a combined cover > 20%: Sphagnum capillifolium, S. magellanicum, S. papillosum, S. tenellum

·         · No reduction in extent of microtopographic features (e.g. bog pools).

Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Nov 2012)

·         The canopy is dominated by single stands of alder Alnus glutinosa or willow Salix spp. In alluvial woods with free draining soils there may be ash or oak in the canopy, but in the wetter alluvial woodlands ash Fraxinus excelsior is more likely to be limited to areas of relatively drier ground

·         The structure of alluvial woodland is recognised as being dynamic therefore the presence of over mature trees is desirable but not essential

·         The river itself should be dynamic to allow for areas of outwash and deposition that trees can regenerate on.

·         Lying or standing deadwood (> 20cm diameter and > 1m length) is present at all sites

·         The feature should support alluvial ground flora including two of the following: meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria, yellow flag Iris pseudacorus, nettle Urtica dioica, common reed Phragmities austrailis, greater tussock sedge Carex paniculata, opposite-leaved golden saxifrage Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, rushes Juncus spp, tufted hair-grass Deschampsia cespitosa, hemlock water-dropwort Onanthe crocata, and wild angelica Angelica sylvestris.

Annex II Species primary reason for selection

Brook Lamprey lampetra planeri

Unfavourable: Recovering (Jan 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the watercourse as defined in 4.1 above is met

·         The population of the feature in the SAC must be stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         Passage of the feature through the SAC is not to be hindered by artificial barriers such as weirs.

·         The characteristic channel morphology provides the diversity of water depths, current velocities and substrate types necessary to fulfil the habitat requirements of the features. The close proximity of different habitats facilitates movement of fish to new preferred habitats with age.

River lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis

Unfavourable: Recovering (Jan 2012)

Bullhead Cottus gobio

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Nov 2006)

·         The conservation objective for the watercourse as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The population of the feature in the SAC must be stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         Passage of the feature through the SAC is not to be hindered by artificial barriers such as weirs

·         . The characteristic channel morphology provides the diversity of water depths, current velocities and substrate types necessary to fulfil the habitat requirements of the features. The close proximity of different habitats facilitates movement of fish to new preferred habitats with age.

Otter Lutra lutra

Favourable: Maintained (Mar 2010)

·         The population of otters in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term and reflects the natural carrying capacity of the habitat within the SAC

·         The SAC will have sufficient habitat, including riparian trees and vegetation and wetlands, to support the otter population in the long term

·         The natural range of otters in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         The otter must be able to breed and recruit successfully in the SAC. The size of breeding territories may vary depending on prey abundance.

·         Otter food sources must be sufficient for maintenance of the population.

·         The safe movement and dispersal of individuals around the SAC is facilitated by the provision, where necessary, of suitable riparian habitat, and underpasses, ledges, fencing etc at road bridges and other artificial barriers.

·         No otter breeding site should be subject to a level of disturbance that could have an adverse effect on breeding success. Where necessary, potentially harmful levels of disturbance must be managed.

Annex II Species qualifying feature

Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the watercourse as defined in 4.1 above is met.

·         The population of the feature in the SAC must be stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         Passage of the feature through the SAC is not to be hindered by artificial barriers such as weirs.

·         The characteristic channel morphology provides the diversity of water depths, current velocities and substrate types necessary to fulfil the habitat requirements of the features. The close proximity of different habitats facilitates movement of fish to new preferred habitats with age.

Site name : Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries SAC

Location Grid Reference: SS357991

JNCC Site Code: UK0020020

Size: 66092.05

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats primary reasons for selection

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by seawater all the time

Unfavourable: Declining (Nov 2006)

Range: The overall distribution and extent of the habitat features within the site, and each of their main component parts is stable or increasing.

Structure and function: The physical biological and chemical structure and functions necessary for the long-term maintenance and quality of the habitat are not degraded. Important elements include; geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, hydrography and meteorology, water and sediment chemistry, biological interactions.

This includes a need for nutrient levels in the water column and sediments to be:

  • at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations
  • within ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long term maintenance of the features species populations, their abundance and range.

Contaminant levels in the water column and sediments derived from human activity to be:

  • at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations
  • below levels that would potentially result in increase in contaminant concentrations within sediments or biota
  • below levels potentially detrimental to the long-term maintenance of the feature species populations, their abundance or range.

For Atlantic saltmeadows this includes the morphology of the saltmarsh creeks and pans.

Typical Species: The presence, abundance, condition and diversity of typical species is such that habitat quality is not degraded. Important elements include: species richness population structure and dynamics, physiological heath, reproductive capacity recruitment, mobility range

As part of this objective it should be noted that:

  • populations of typical species subject to existing commercial fisheries need to be at an abundance equal to or greater than that required to achieve maximum sustainable yield and secure in the long term
  • the management and control of activities or operations likely to adversely affect the habitat feature is appropriate for maintaining it in favourable condition and is secure in the long term.

Estuaries

Favourable: Maintained (Nov 2006)

Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide

Favourable: Maintained (Nov 2006)

Large shallow inlets and bays

Favourable: Maintained (Nov 2006)

Salicornia and other annuals colonizing mud and sand

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Oct 2006)

Atlantic salt meadows (Glauco-Puccinellietalia maritimae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Annex II Species primary reason for selection

Twaite Shad Alosa fallax

Unfavourable: No change (Nov 2006)

Population: The population is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitat. Important elements include:

·         population size

·         structure, production

·         condition of the species within the site.

As part of this objective it should be noted that;

·         Contaminant burdens derived from human activity are below levels that may cause physiological damage, or immune or reproductive suppression

Range: The species population within the site is such that the natural range of the population is not being reduced or likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

As part of this objective it should be noted that:

·         Their range within the SAC and adjacent inter-connected areas is not constrained or hindered.

·         There are appropriate and sufficient food resources within the SAC and beyond.

·         The sites and amount of supporting habitat used by these species are accessible and their extent and quality is stable or increasing.

Supporting habitats and species: The presence, abundance, condition and diversity of habitats and species required to support this species is such that the distribution, abundance and populations dynamics of the species within the site and population beyond the site is stable or increasing. Important considerations include;

·         distribution

·         extent

·         structure

·         function and quality of habitat

·         prey availability and quality.

As part of this objective it should be noted that;

·         The abundance of prey species subject to existing commercial fisheries needs to be equal to or greater than that required to achieve maximum sustainable yield and secure in the long term.

·         The management and control of activities or operations likely to adversely affect the species feature is appropriate for maintaining it in favourable condition and is secure in the long term.

·         Contamination of potential prey species should be below concentrations potentially harmful to their physiological health.

·         Disturbance by human activity is below levels that suppress reproductive success, physiological health or long-term behaviour.

·         For otter there are sufficient sources within the SAC and beyond of high quality freshwater for drinking and bathing.

Annex II Species qualifying feature

Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Apr 2005)

River lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Apr 2005)

Allis shad Alosa alosa

Unfavourable: No change (Nov 2006)

Otter Lutra lutra

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2010)

Site name : Cwm Doethie - Mynydd Mallaen  SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN747458

JNCC Site Code: UK0030128

Size: 4121.73ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats primary reasons for selection

Old sessile oak woods with llex and Blechnum in the British Isles

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Aug 2012)

·         Old sessile oak woodlands remain a significant and conspicuous feature of the upland valley sides within the plan area. Those in the Elan and Claerwen valleys and Rhayader area, the Dinas and Gwenffrwd area of the upper Tywi valley and the Cothi valley to the north of Mynydd Mallaen are particularly well developed and extensive.

·         The boundary between the woodland and adjacent upland habitat is often a flexible one where trees regenerate on to open ground. At many locations oak woodland forms patches in ‘ffridd’ areas where there is less grazing pressure on the upland fringe.

·         The oak woodland has of a variety of different structures and its character varies from place to place, ranging from long standing closed canopy areas to largely open wood pasture.

·         The dominant trees are sessile oaks, but in places birch is more conspicuous. Rowans and other trees occur as a minor component while at the foot of slopes where the oak woodland grades into wet woodland, there are some alders and willows. Non-native trees such as beech and sycamore will be present only in small numbers are generally scarce.

·         Under-storey shrubs are generally quite sparse, but scattered groups of hazel or holly will be found in some woods.

·         Ground cover varies widely. Parts will be bracken covered, others grassy, others again have a wider range of flowering plants and ferns and are often carpeted with bluebells in spring. On thin soils in shaded moist situations there are luxuriant carpets of mosses and liverworts, with or without under-shrubs like heather and bilberry.

·         The larger trees support a variety of lichens on their trunks and branches.

·         In each woodland block, trees in most age classes are present and veteran trees are prominent in some areas, particularly where there is wood pasture.

·         In all areas except wood pasture, there is evidence of actual regeneration in the form of seedlings and saplings or potential for regeneration, while in some wood pasture areas the planting and protecting of young trees, especially oak, may be appropriate.

·         Dead wood is well distributed and sometimes abundant, both lying on the woodland floor and occurring as standing dead trees or branches of trees.

·         The majority of the oak woodland has a closed canopy, but there are some clearings and much larger areas that are effectively wood pasture. These conditions should be sympathetic to the important populations of mosses and liverworts on the one hand and lichens on the other.

·         The oak woods support a characteristic assemblage of birds, such as wood warbler, pied flycatcher and redstart.

·         The pattern and distribution of grazed and un-grazed woods may change over time as different conservation needs arise.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Annex I habitats qualifying feature

European dry heaths

Unfavourable: Recovering (Sept 2012)

·         The extent, quality and diversity of heath vegetation within the constituent sites is maintained and, where possible, degraded heath is restored to good condition.

·         · The main heathland areas have a varied age structure with a mosaic of young heath, mature heath and degenerate heath.

·         · Sunny slopes in certain areas support vegetation that includes bell heather and western gorse and steep north and east facing slopes have a rich variety of mosses and liverworts beneath the dwarf shrub canopy, including bog mosses in some areas.

·         · Populations of uncommon plants, such as lesser twayblade, are stable or increasing.

·         · The larger heathland areas provide suitable habitat for breeding birds, including red grouse and merlin.

·         · All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control

 


 

Site name : Cardigan Bay SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN214641

JNCC Site Code: UK0012712

Size: 4121.73ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats qualifying feature

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time

Not Assessed

Range: The overall distribution and extent of the habitat features within the site, and each of their main component parts is stable or increasing.

For the reef feature these include;  Intertidal bedrock reefs Intertidal cobble, pebble with Sabellaria alveolata (biogenic) reefs Subtidal bedrock reefs Subtidal pebble, cobble and boulder reefs Sea caves

Structure and Function: The physical biological and chemical structure and functions necessary for the long-term maintenance and quality of the habitat are not degraded. Important elements include; geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, hydrography and meteorology, water and sediment chemistry, biological interactions

This includes a need for nutrient levels in the water column and sediments to be:

·         at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

·         within ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long term maintenance of the features species populations, their abundance and range.

Contaminant levels in the water column and sediments derived from human activity to be:

·         at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

·         below levels that would potentially result in increase in contaminant concentrations within

·         sediments or biota

·         below levels potentially detrimental to the long-term maintenance of the feature species populations, their abundance or range taking into account bioaccumulation and biomagnification.

Typical species: The presence, abundance, condition and diversity of typical species is such that habitat quality is not degraded. Important elements include

·         species richness:

·         population structure and dynamics,

·         physiological heath,

·         reproductive capacity

·         recruitment,

·         mobility

·         range

As part of this objective it should be noted that:

  • populations of typical species subject to existing commercial fisheries need to be at an abundance equal to or greater than that required to achieve maximum sustainable yield and secure in the long term
  • the management and control of activities or operations likely to adversely affect the habitat feature is appropriate for maintaining it in favourable condition and is secure in the long term.

Reefs

Not Assessed

Submerged or partially submerged sea caves

Favourable: Maintained (Nov 2006)

Annex II Species primary reason for selection

Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus

Favourable: Maintained (Jan 2007)

 

Populations: The population is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitat.

Important elements include:

  • population size
  • structure, production
  • condition of the species within the site.

As part of this objective it should be noted that for bottlenose dolphin and grey seal;

  • Contaminant burdens derived from human activity are below levels that may cause physiological damage, or immune or reproductive suppression

For grey seal populations should not be reduced as a consequence of human activity

Range: The species population within the site is such that the natural range of the population is not being reduced or likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

As part of this objective it should be noted that for bottlenose dolphin and grey seal

  • Their range within the SAC and adjacent inter-connected areas is not constrained or hindered
  • There are appropriate and sufficient food resources within the SAC and beyond
  • The sites and amount of supporting habitat used by these species are accessible and their
  • extent and quality is stable or increasing

Supporting habitats and species: The presence, abundance, condition and diversity of habitats and species required to support this species is such that the distribution, abundance and populations dynamics of the species within the site and population beyond the site is stable or increasing. Important considerations include;

  • distribution
  • extent
  • structure
  • function and quality of habitat
  • prey availability and quality.

As part of this objective it should be noted that;

  • The abundance of prey species subject to existing commercial fisheries needs to be equal to or greater than that required to achieve maximum sustainable yield and secure in the long term.
  • The management and control of activities or operations likely to adversely affect the species feature is appropriate for maintaining it in favourable condition and is secure in the long term.
  • Contamination of potential prey species should be below concentrations potentially harmful to their physiological health.
  • Disturbance by human activity is below levels that suppress reproductive success, physiological health or long-term behaviour

Restoration and recovery: As part of this objective it should be noted that for the bottlenose dolphin populations should be increasing.

Annex II Species qualifying feature

Sea lamprey  Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Unclassified (April 2005)

River lamprey  Lampetra fluviatilis

Unfavourable: Unclassified (April 2005)

Grey seal  Halichoerus grypus

Favourable: Maintained (Jan 2007)


 

Site name : North Pembrokeshire Woodlands/Coedydd Gogledd Sir Benfro SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN046345

JNCC Site Code: UK0030227

Size: 4121.73ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats primary reasons for selection

Old sessile oak woods with llex and Blechnum in the British Isles

Unfavourable: Recovering (May 2010)

·         The majority of the SAC will be covered by oak woodland.

·         There will be no measurable, permanent loss of semi-natural woodland.

·         The trees will be locally native, with a dominance of oak in the canopy, and include ash and rowan.

·         No more than 5% of the canopy forming trees will consist of non-native species.

·         Each woodland will include trees of a wide range of age classes, including veteran trees.

·         Between 10-25% of the woodland area will comprise a dynamic, shifting pattern of gaps: in the long-term, most of these will be created by natural processes.

·         There will be sufficient natural regeneration to replace the canopy in these gaps over time.

·         There will be abundant dead and dying trees with holes and hollows, rot columns, torn off limbs and rotten branches. Dead wood, both standing and fallen, will be retained to provide habitats for other species, and will represent at least 10% (by volume) of the total timber.

·         Veteran trees will be favoured during any silvicultural management because they support a wide variety of species, including lichens.

·         Old forest lichen species will be found throughout the site, especially on well-lit trees around woodland edges and glades.

·         Invasive alien species, such as rhododendron, laurel and Japanese knotweed, will eventually be eradicated from the site, or restricted to very low cover.

·         There will be a well-developed shrub layer throughout the SAC, including hazel and holly.

·         The field layer will be diverse and include broad-buckler fern, greater wood-rush, bluebell, honeysuckle, wood-sorrel, dog’s-mercury, opposite-leaved golden-saxifrage, bilberry, bracken, bramble and violets.

·         The woodlands will support populations of butterflies, birds and mammals.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions will be under control.

Annex I Habitat qualifying feature

Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (June 2016)

·         At least 2% of the SAC will be covered by alluvial woodland.

·         The canopy will consist of locally native trees, with an overall dominance of alder. At least 90% of the canopy trees will be wet woodland species. There will be no non-native trees present in the canopy.

·         In the long-term, each woodland will include trees of a broad range of age classes, including saplings and veteran trees.

·         At any given time, around 30% of the woodland area will consist of a dynamic, shifting pattern of canopy gaps, maintained by natural processes.

·         There will be sufficient natural regeneration in the gaps (from seed or vegetative) to replace the canopy, 90% of which will be alder or willow.

·         There will be abundant dead and dying trees with holes and hollows, rot columns, torn off limbs and rotten branches. Dead wood, both standing and fallen, will be retained to provide habitats for other species, and will represent at least 10% (by volume) of the total timber.

·         There will be no evidence of alder disease.

·         Veteran trees will be favoured during any silvicultural management because they support a wide variety of species, including lichens. Old forest lichen species will be found throughout the sites, especially on well-lit trees around woodland edges and glades.

·         Invasive alien species, such as rhododendron, laurel and Japanese knotweed, will be eradicated from the site, or subject to a control programme of eradication.

·         The field layer will be diverse and dominated by alluvial species. Indicators of drying out (bramble) and over-grazing (creeping buttercup) will be scarce.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions will be under control.

Annex II species  primary reasons for selection

Barbastelle Bat Barbastella barbastellus

Favourable: Maintained (Aug 2012)

·         There will be no loss of ancient semi-natural woodland at the site.

·         Canopy gaps will be present throughout the site, with two or more young trees growing in each.

·         Canopy cover will be 50-90% throughout the site (except in Hawthorn fields).

·         A well-developed shrub layer with holly will be present throughout the woodland, to provide a favourable micro-climate for roosting barbastelles.

·         A minimum of 4 trees per hectare will be allowed to die standing, will not be removed or cut down. These will be distributed across the site and will include trees with splits, fallen, leaning trees and hollow trees.

·         Ivy will be allowed to grow on trees throughout the site, to provide roosting opportunities.

·         There will be no overall loss of open water.

·         There will be no increase in disturbance (eg paths or rides) near any of the roosting sites.

·         No roosting sites will be lost as a result of human intervention.

·         Barbastelle bat passes will be detected on at least 4 out of 6 transects between 25 July and 7 September.

·         There will be contiguous suitable foraging habitat within a 16km radius around Pengelli Forest, including wooded stream valleys, low and overgrown hedgerows, scrub, overgrown pastures, bracken stands and woodland (which can include conifer plantations).

·         Roosts outside the SSSI boundary will be left undisturbed, with no woodland management within 50m of a barbastelle roost, and no clearance of the shrub layer. Over-mature trees in any of the woodlands within 2km of Pengelli should be left undisturbed except where they pose a risk to public safety, in which case minimal trees surgery can be permitted.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions will be under control.


 

Site name : Yerbeston Tops SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN057099

JNCC Site Code: UK0030305

Size: 18.6ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I Habitat qualifying feature

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2017)

·         Molinia meadows will cover at least 4ha

·         The following plants will be common in the Molinia meadows: purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea; small sedges including Carex pulicaris and hostiana, and devil’s bit scabious Succisa pratensis.

·         Soft rush Juncus effusus and species indicative of agricultural modification, such as perennial rye grass Lolium perenne and white clover Trifolium repens will be largely absent from the Molinia meadows.

·         Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent from the Molinia meadows

·         • All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions will be under control

Annex II species  primary reasons for selection

Marsh fritillary butterfly  Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2017)

·         Density of larval webs during sampling is at least 200 per hectare of optimal breeding habitat

·         There are at least 10ha of Good Condition (optimal breeding) habitat on or within 2 km radii of the SSSI

·         • There are at least 50ha of Suitable Condition habitat on or within 2km radii of the SSSI

·         • Optimal breeding habitat comprises grassland, with Molinia abundant, where the vegetation height is within the range of 10 to 20 cm, and where, for at least 80% of sampling points, Succisa pratensis is present within a 1 m radius. Scrub (>1 metre tall) covers no more than 10% of area.

·         The factors influencing the breeding habitat are under control.

·         Trees, bracken, scrub and saplings are of no more than scattered occurrence within the marshy grassland.

·         A range of characteristic wetland plants and insects are present.

·         Species indicating agricultural improvement are rare or absent.


 

Site name : Rhos Llawr-cwrt SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN411497

JNCC Site Code: UK0012680

Size: 45.95ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex II species  primary reasons for selection

Marsh fritillary butterfly  Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Unfavourable: Recovering (Aug 2012)

·         The SAC will continue to support a nationally important population of the marsh fritillary butterfly. Although, numbers of adult butterflies and larvae will fluctuate annually in response to a parasitic wasp and weather conditions, the population will be robust, resilient and viable in the long term.

·         During peak years, a visitor taking a walk through the site on a sunny day in June will see several hundreds of adult butterflies. In these years the caterpillars, feeding communally in silken webs on their food plant devil’s bit scabious, will be found in their thousands throughout the SAC.

·         The SAC population will be the core of the Rhos Llawr Cwrt marsh fritillary metapopulation. The metapopulation will consist of the SAC population, plus populations breeding on land outside the SAC, within the Rhos Llawr Cwrt National Nature Reserve and elsewhere in the immediate vicinity (research indicates that a marsh fritillary metapopulation requires at least 50 hectares of available habitat to be viable in the long term).

·         The population will breed throughout all 4 SAC units, where it will be a key species driving the management of each unit.

·         Rosettes of devil’s bit scabious will be both very numerous and widespread throughout the SAC, growing amongst a short turf of grasses, sedges and flowering herbs with scattered tussocks of purple moor grass and rushes providing shelter for the caterpillars in wet weather. This colourful wet grassland mosaic will extend throughout all the management units and some of the NNR fields outside the SAC and other non-designated areas nearby.

·         Dense mixed hedges of hawthorn, hazel, mountain ash and other locally native species will grow around the external and internal boundaries and offer vital shelter to the breeding adult butterflies during poor weather in what is otherwise a very exposed landscape with little shelter.

·         • All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions will be under control.

Annex II species  qualifying species

Slender green feather-moss  Drepanocladus (Hamatocaulis) vernicosus

Unfavourable: unclassified (Oct 2005)

·         Slender green feather moss will be common across the Bwdram and Clettwr valley bottoms, with more than five populations of plants, appearing as groups of uniform dark green 'patches' scattered amongst the marshy grassland and fen vegetation communities.

·         The populations of moss will grow in a series of flushes, old peat cuttings and shallow excavations, where ground conditions are wet throughout the year, the water table being at, or near the surface. This habitat will have an open, relatively short sward and scrub will be confined to hedge banks on old field boundaries.

·         Groundwater across the valley bottom will range from slightly acid to slightly basic.

·         Associated site-specific herbs, grasses and sedges will grow in close proximity to the moss populations. These plants share the habitat requirements of the moss; they include Lesser Spearwort, Sharp-flowered Rush, Purple Moor Grass, Star Sedge, Carnation Sedge, Devil’s- bit Scabious, Lesser Skullcap, Large Birdsfoot Trefoil, Bogbean, Common marsh-bedstraw, Common Cotton Sedge, Bottle Sedge, Common Sedge, Common Yellow Sedge, Velvet Bent and Flea Sedge.

·         • The site will continue to be summer-grazed by cattle; this will maintain the short open sward conditions favoured by the moss.

·         • All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions will be under control.


 

Site name : Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes /

Safleodd Ystlum Sir Befro a Llynnoedd Bosherton SAC

Location Grid Reference: SR966954

JNCC Site Code: UK0014793

Size: 121.26ha

Annex I habitat  primary reasons for selection

Hard oligo-mesotrophic waters with benthic vegetation of Chara spp.

Unfavourable: No Change (Dec 2011)

·         Submerged Chara beds (mainly Chara hispida in places up to a metre long) will form the predominant submerged macrophyte vegetation throughout most of Central and Western Arms and Central Lake of Bosherston Lakes (unit 1a) and may be present in the Eastern Arm (unit 1b).

·         Chara will occur at more than 50% frequency along regular surveillance transects within the Western and Central arms.

·         Chara species (not necessarily hispida) will be present in other embayments and pools, including the Eastern Arm of Bosherston Lakes (unit 1b) and pools in the Mere Pool Valley (unit 1d).

·         The Western and Central Arms are spring-fed, so nutrient levels here remain low. One of the main nutrients (phosphorous) will reach no more than 25 micrograms per litre in regular sampling areas. Nitrogen levels in the water will be low (less than 1 milligram per litre) and declining or stable.

·         The Western Arm, Central Arm and Central Lake water will be fairly clear, but well vegetated with submerged and marginal plants. In natural openings (e.g. over springs) within otherwise dense Chara beds, a sechii disk will be viewable on the lakebed.

·         Water depth will vary from about 3.5 metres OD (winter maximum) to about 0.5 metres or less in places in summer.

·         Fringing the Chara beds, are beds of white water lilies Nymphaea alba. They will remain fairly abundant in the Western and Central Arms, with smaller populations in Central Lake.

·         Reed and swamp and fringing burr-reed will be restricted to shallow zones – covering not more than 10 % of the site.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Annex II species  primary reasons for selection

Greater horseshoe bat  Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

Favourable: Maintained (Aug 2012)

·         The greater horseshoe bat population will be capable of maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats.

·         The natural range of greater horseshoe bats will neither be reduced nor will be likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future, and

·         There will be sufficient habitat to maintain its populations on a long-term basis.

·         At least three SSSI maternity roosts will be occupied annually by adult greater horseshoe bats and their babies:

• Stackpole Courtyard Flats and Walled Garden SSSI

• Slebech Stable Yard Loft, Cellars and Tunnels SSSI

• Felin Llwyngwair SSSI

·         Carew Castle SSSI will continue to be used as an intermediate greater horseshoe bat roost, during the spring and autumn, as a male summer roost and an autumn/spring mating roost.

·         The greater horseshoe bat population at the component SSSI’s will be stable or increasing.

·         There will be a sufficiently large area of suitable habitat surrounding these roosts to support the bat population, including continuous networks of sheltered, broadleaved woodland, tree lines and hedgerows connecting the various types of roosts with areas of insect-rich grassland and open water.

·         • All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Annex II species  qualifying features

Lesser horseshoe bat  Rhinolophus hipposideros

Unfavourable: Declining (Aug 2012)

·         The Lesser horseshoe bat population will be capable of maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats.

·         The natural range of lesser horseshoe bats will be neither being reduced nor will be likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future, and

·         There will be sufficient habitat to maintain its populations on a long-term basis.

·         At least four SSSI maternity roosts will be occupied annually by adult lesser horseshoe bats and their babies:

• Beech Cottage, Waterwynch SSSI,

• Orielton Stable Block and Cellars SSSI,

• Park House Outbuildings SSSI,

• Stackpole Courtyard Flats and Walled Garden SSSI

·         The lesser horseshoe bat population at the component SSSI’s will be stable or increasing.

·         There will be a sufficiently large area of suitable habitat surrounding these roosts to support the bat population, including continuous networks of sheltered, broadleaved woodland, tree lines and hedgerows connecting the various types of roosts with areas of insect-rich grassland and open water.

·         • All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Otter  Lutra lutra

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2010)

·         The Otter population will be capable of maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats.

·         The natural range of otters will neither be reduced nor will be likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future, and

·         There will be sufficient habitat to maintain its populations on a long-term basis.

·         The otter population will be stable or increasing.

·         There will be a sufficiently large area of suitable habitat to support an otter breeding population, including:

• Open water with sufficient food resources (notably eels and other fish species) and

• a continuous network of undisturbed sheltered resting places along the lake shoreline – including swamp, broadleaved woodland and calcareous scrub.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

 


 

Site name : Gower Ash Woods SAC

Location Grid Reference: SS574882

JNCC Site Code: UK0030157

Size: 233.15ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitat  primary reasons for selection

Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines 

Unfavourable: Unclassified (May 2016)

·         The steep sided valleys found across most of the site will be covered with woodland dominated by ash.

·         The rocky slopes will be covered with a rich ground flora including species such as dog’s mercury, hart’s tongue fern and ramsons.

·         Fallen trees left on the ground will provide homes for invertebrates and fungi.

·         The steep slopes will prevent the canopy trees reaching full size.

·         Amongst the canopy ash will dominate, with other species like field maple, oak and sycamore also present.

·         A shrub layer of hazel, hawthorn, spindle and saplings of ash will fill the spaces between the ground flora and the canopy.

·         Mosses and hart’s tongue fern will cover limestone boulders that pepper the ground.

·         The ground flora on the slopes and on the flatter ground will be full of colour in the spring, with bluebells and ransoms providing a haze of blue and white.

·         Mature rotting trees will be found standing and fallen.

·         Young trees will grow in the ground flora and shrub layer ready to take the place of a fallen tree.

·         Some uncommon vascular plants will be found in the woods these include herb Paris, purple gromwell, butcher’s broom and spurge laurel.

·         On the flatter areas fallen planted conifers will support mosses and ferns and ash trees will grow up from between the fallen conifers. Old conifer and beech plantations will support developing ash woodland.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions will be under control.

Annex I habitat  qualifying features

Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jun 2016)

·         Alongside the Pennard Pill and the Ilston stream alluvial woodland will grow in the silts from the river,

·         Alder will dominate these areas but hazel and elder will also grow here,

·         Creeping buttercup, nettles and meadowsweet will dominate the ground flora.

·         There will be no signs of disturbance such as over-grazing or fly-tipping and no non-native species will grow in these areas.

·         Young saplings of alder and hazel will be numerous and waiting to fill the spaces left by fallen

·         trees.

·         All other factors will be under control.


 

Site name : Pembrokeshire Marine SAC

Location Grid Reference: SM503093

JNCC Site Code: UK0013116

Size: 138038.50ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitat primary reason for selection

Estuaries

Unfavourable: Declining (Nov 2006)

Range: The overall distribution and extent of the habitat features within the site, and each of their main component parts is stable or increasing.

For the inlets and bays feature these include;

·         The embayment of St.Brides Bay

·         The ria of Milford Haven

·         Peripheral embayments and inlets

For the coastal lagoons feature this is subject to the requirements for maintenance of the artificial impoundment structure and maintenance of the lagoons for the original purpose or subsequent purpose that pre-dates classification of the site.

Structure and Function: The physical biological and chemical structure and functions necessary for the long-term maintenance and quality of the habitat are not degraded. Important elements include; geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, hydrography and meteorology, water and sediment chemistry, biological interactions.

This includes a need for nutrient levels in the water column and sediments to be:

• at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

• within ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long term maintenance of the features species populations, their abundance and range.

Contaminant levels in the water column and sediments derived from human activity to be:

• at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

• below levels that would potentially result in increase in contaminant concentrations within

sediments or biota

• below levels potentially detrimental to the long-term maintenance of the features species

populations, their abundance or range.

Restoration and recovery: As part of this objective it should be noted that; the Milford Haven waterway complex would benefit from restorative action, for example through the removal of non-natural beach material, and the removal, replacement or improved maintenance of rock filled gabions. There is also need for some restoration of the populations of several typical species of the Milford Haven waterway complex that are severely depleted with respect to historical levels as a consequence primarily of human exploitation.

In the Milford Haven waterways complex inputs of nutrients and contaminants to the water column and sediments derived from human activity must remain at or below levels at the time the site became a candidate SAC.

For the lagoons feature this is subject to the requirements for maintenance of the artificial impoundment structures of coastal lagoons and maintenance of the lagoons for their original purpose or subsequent purpose that pre-dates classification of the site.

For the inlets and bays features this includes the need for some restoration of the populations of

several typical species which are severely depleted with respect to historical levels as a consequence, primarily of human exploitation.

In the Milford Haven waterways complex inputs of nutrients and contaminants to the water column and sediments derived from human activity must remain at or below levels at the time the site became a candidate SAC.

Typical Species: The presence, abundance, condition and diversity of typical species are such that habitat quality is not degraded. Important elements include species richness, population structure and dynamics, physiological heath, reproductive capacity, recruitment, mobility, range.

As part of this objective it should be noted that:

• populations of typical species subject to existing commercial fisheries need to be at an abundance equal to or greater than that required to achieve maximum sustainable yield and be secure in the long term

• the management and control of activities or operations likely to adversely affect the habitat feature is appropriate for maintaining it in favourable condition and is secure in the long term.

Large shallow inlets and bays

Unfavourable: Declining (Nov 2006)

Reefs

Unfavourable: Declining (Jul 2008)

Annex I habitats qualifying features

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time

Unfavourable: No change (Dec 2006)

Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide

Unfavourable: Declining (Nov 2006)

Coastal lagoons

Favourable: Maintained (Nov 2006)

Atlantic salt meadows (Glauco-Puccinellietalia maritimae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Oct 2006)

Submerged or partially submerged sea caves

Favourable: Maintained (Nov 2006)

Annex II species primary  reason for  selection

Grey seal  Halichoerus grypus

Favourable: Maintained (Nov 2006)

·         Populations: The population is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitat. Important elements are population size, structure, production, and condition of the species within the site.

As part of this objective it should be noted that for otter and grey seal;

• Contaminant burdens derived from human activity are below levels that may cause physiological damage, or immune or reproductive suppression

For grey seal, populations should not be reduced as a consequence of human activity

Range: The species population within the site is such that the natural range of the population is not being reduced or likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

As part of this objective it should be noted that for otter and grey seal

• Their range within the SAC and adjacent inter-connected areas is not constrained or hindered

• There are appropriate and sufficient food resources within the SAC and beyond

The sites and amount of supporting habitat used by these species are accessible and their

extent and quality is stable or increasing

Supporting Habitats and Species: The presence, abundance, condition and diversity of habitats and species required to support this species is such that the distribution, abundance and populations dynamics of the species within the site and population beyond the site is stable or increasing. Important considerations include; distribution, extent, structure, function and quality of habitat, prey availability and quality.

As part of this objective it should be noted that;

• The abundance of prey species subject to existing commercial fisheries needs to be equal to or greater than that required to achieve maximum sustainable yield and secure in the long term.

• The management and control of activities or operations likely to adversely affect the species feature is appropriate for maintaining it in favourable condition and is secure in the long term.

• Contamination of potential prey species should be below concentrations potentially harmful

to their physiological health.

• Disturbance by human activity is below levels that suppress reproductive success, physiological health or long-term behaviour

• For otter there are sufficient sources within the SAC and beyond of high quality freshwater for drinking and bathing.

Restoration and recovery: In the Milford Haven waterways complex inputs of nutrients and contaminants to the water column and sediments derived from human activity must remain at or below levels at the time the site became a candidate SAC.

As part of this objective it should be noted that for the otter, populations should be increasing.

Shore dock  Rumex rupestris

Favourable: Maintained (Feb 2006)

Annex II species qualifying features

Sea lamprey  Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Declining (Apr 2005)

River lamprey  Lampetra fluviatilis

Unfavourable: No change (Apr 2005)

Allis shad  Alosa alosa

Not Assessed

Twaite shad  Alosa fallax

Not Assessed

Otter  Lutra lutra

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2010)


 

Site name : Gower Commons / Tiroedd Comin SAC

Location Grid Reference: SS497900

JNCC Site Code: UK0012685

Size: 1775.29ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitat primary reason for selection

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2016)

·         The wet heath will be found on moist and generally acidic soils across the commons.

·         The wet heath will be characterised by western gorse growing amongst cross-leaved heath and purple moor grass. The gorse will be low growing and does not seem to dominate the heath. The yellow of the gorse and the pink of the cross-leaved heath make a spectacular display. Pink lousewort will be seen growing amongst the mixture of gorse and heath, with grasses and sedges weaving their way through the mix of species such as cotton grass, heath bedstraw, heath milkwort, flea sedge and carnation sedge.

·         Sphagnum mosses grow beneath the heath, holding moisture like a sponge. Plants capable of growing in certain very wet areas associated with wet heath like bog asphodel and the insect eating sundews will also be found as you walk around the wet heath.

·         The wet heath is not poached by grazing animals, but is evenly and sensitively grazed. There are no invasive species like Rhododendron or Japanese Knotweed growing in the wet heath and willow and birch are found only very thinly scattered throughout the site, mainly on the edges.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

European dry heaths

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2008)

·         Dry heath is found on the free-draining parts of the commons. In some parts of the SAC dry heath grows in large continuous areas like at Rhossili Down, in other parts of the SAC, the dry heath grows in mosaics with wet heath and acid grassland. Bell heather and cross-leaved heath grow along side European and western gorse. There is a lack of purple moor grass and sphagnum mosses which tell us that the heath is drier. Heath milkwort, tormentil and heath bedstraw are seen regularly decorating the dry heaths.

·         Scrub like birch and overgrown gorse is rare with the dry heaths, except where island of scrub provide some shelter for grazing animals. These islands will be accepted within the heathland landscape.

·         Bracken is present within the dry heath and grows around the edges but bracken never dominates stands of dry heath and does not encroach on the dry heath.

·         Burning of the heath is only carried out as a controlled management technique to create a mosaic of different ages of heath. There are no signs of burning causing damage or causing bracken to spread.

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2016)

On the wettest ground, marshy grassland will be found; it will often be found growing in a mosaic with wet heath.

·         The marshy grassland will be dominated by tussocks of purple moor grass. The tussocks will provide little sheltered areas where flowers grow and help to provide some shelter for the marsh fritillary butterfly.

·         The tussocks are uneven in size, but there will always be young purple moor grass coming through each spring. Only a few of the tussocks will have old and ‘rank’ purple moor grass growing on them.

·         Devil’s bit scabious, the food plant for the larvae of marsh fritillary butterflies will be found commonly growing amongst the purple moor grass. Whorled caraway and soft leaved sedge are both scarce plants that will be commonly found in the marshy grassland areas.

·         Often heathy plants like cross-leaved heath and gorse will be found in marshy grassland – this is a transition area between the two habitats.

Annex II species primary reason for selection

Southern damselfly  Coenagrion mercuriale

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2017)

·         Seepages and runnels at Rhossili Down, Cefn Bryn and Sluxton Marsh will be well maintained, clear and pollution free.

·         They will support good numbers of native aquatic plants.

·         On summer days each year southern damselflies will be seen darting over the seepages and runnels.

·         Each year the population of southern damselflies will stay the same or increase.

Marsh fritillary butterfly  Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2009)

·         The site will contribute towards supporting a sustainable metapopulation of the marsh fritillary on Gower. This will require a minimum of 50ha of suitable habitat, of which at least 10ha must be in good condition. Some will be on nearby land within a radius of about 2km.

·         The population will be viable in the long term, acknowledging the extreme population fluctuations of the species.

·         Habitats on the site will be in optimal condition to support the metapopulation.

·         At least 50ha of the total site area within the SAC & associated SSSI will be marshy grassland suitable for supporting marsh fritillary, with Succisa pratensis present and only a low cover of scrub.

·         At least 10ha will be good marsh fritillary breeding habitat in good condition, dominated by purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea, with S. pratensis present throughout and a vegetation height of 10-20cm over the winter period.

·         Suitable marsh fritillary habitat is defined as stands of grassland where Succisa pratensis is present and where scrub more than 1 metre tall covers no more than 10% of the stands

·         Optimal marsh fritillary breeding habitat will be characterised by grassland where the vegetation height is 10-20 cm, with abundant purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea, frequent “large-leaved” devil’s-bit scabious Succisa pratensis suitable for marsh fritillaries to lay their eggs and only occasional scrub. In peak years, a density of 200 larval webs per hectare of optimal habitat will be found across the site. (Fowles 20042)

·         The marshy grassland will be well sheltered by hedgerows and mature trees.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions are under control.


 

Site name : River Wye / Afon Gwy SAC

Location Grid Reference: SO109369

JNCC Site Code: UK0012642

Size: 2147.64ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats primary reason for selection

Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The natural range of the plant communities represented within this feature should be stable or increasing in the SAC.

·         The area covered by the feature within its natural range in the SAC should be stable or increasing

·         The conservation status of the feature’s typical species should be favourable.

Annex I habitat qualifying feature

Transition mires and quaking bogs

Unfavourable: Declining (Jul 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The natural range of the plant communities represented within this feature should be stable or increasing in the SAC.

·         The area covered by the feature within its natural range in the SAC should be stable or increasing

·         The conservation status of the feature’s typical species should be favourable.

Annex II species primary reason for selection

White-clawed (or Atlantic stream) crayfish  Austropotamobius pallipes

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Sept 2016)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The population of the feature in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         There is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain the feature’s population in the SAC on a long-term basis.

Otter  Lutra lutra

Favourable: Recovered (Mar 2010)

·         The population of otters in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term and reflects the natural carrying capacity of the habitat within the SAC, as determined by natural levels of prey abundance and associated territorial behaviour.

·         The natural range of otters in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         The safe movement and dispersal of individuals around the SAC is facilitated by the provision, where necessary, of suitable riparian habitat, and underpasses, ledges, fencing etc at road bridges and other artificial barriers.

Sea lamprey  Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The population of the feature in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         There is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain the feature’s population in the SAC on a long-term basis.

Brook lamprey  Lampetra planeri

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

River lamprey  Lampetra fluviatilis

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Twaite shad  Alosa fallax

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Atlantic salmon  Salmo salar

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Bullhead  Cottus gobio

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Dec 2016)

Annex II species qualifying features

Allis shad  Alosa alosa

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)


 

Site name : Gweunydd Blaencleddau SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN155317

JNCC Site Code: UK0030144

Size: 149.13ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats qualifying features

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2016)

·         Wet heath will occupy at least 6% of the total site area.

·         The following plants will be common in the wet heath: heather Calluna vulgaris; cross-leaved heath Erica tetralix; purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea; bog asphodel Narthecium ossifragum; short sedges Carex species; mosses including bog moss Sphagnum species; devil’s bit scabious Succisa pratensis.

·         Competitive species indicative of under-grazing, particularly purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea and western gorse Ulex gallii will be kept in check.

·         Bracken, and scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent from the wet heath.

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae)

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2016)

·         Molinia meadows will occur as small patches around the site.

·         The following plants will be common: purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea; small sedges including Carex pulicaris and hostiana, and devil’s bit scabious Succisa pratensis.

·         Soft rush Juncus effusus and species indicative of agricultural modification, such as perennial rye grass Lolium perenne and white clover Trifolium repens will be virtually absent.

·         · Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent.

·         · All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions will be under control.

Blanket bogs

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2016)

·         Blanket bog will occupy at least 4% of the total site area.

·         The following plants will be common in the blanket bog: hare’s-tail cotton grass Eriophorum vaginatum; heather Calluna vulgaris; cross-leaved heath Erica tetralix and bog moss Sphagnum species.

·         Competitive species indicative of under-grazing, particularly purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea will be kept in check.

·         Bracken, and scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent from the blanket bog.

Transition mires and quaking bogs

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2016)

·         Transition mire and quaking bog will occupy at least 2% of the total site area.

·         Bottle sedge should be abundant over carpets of bog mosses, ‘brown’ mosses or swamp species such as marsh cinquefoil

·         Competitive species indicative of under-grazing, particularly soft rush Juncus effusus and purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea will be kept in check.

·         Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent.

Alkaline fens

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2017)

·         Flushes will occupy at least 10% of the total site area.

·         The majority of the flushes will naturally support carpets of bog moss below a canopy of tall rushes or sedges.

·         A proportion (at least 15%) should support short, open vegetation rich in small mosses, sedges and wildflowers characteristic of less acidic conditions. This type of flush corresponds to the Alkaline Fen feature of European interest.

·         Many of the flushes will have short, open vegetation to suit the requirements of the southern damselfly.

·         Competitive species indicative of under-grazing, particularly soft rush Juncus effusus and purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea will be kept in check.

·         Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent.

Annex II species primary reason for selection

Marsh fritillary butterfly  Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2016)

·         Density of larval webs during sampling will be at least 200 per hectare of Good Condition habitat

·         There are at least 50ha of Suitable habitat on the site or within a 2km radius around it.

·         At least 10ha of the suitable habitat is Good Condition habitat

·         Good Condition habitat habitat comprises grassland, with Molinia abundant, where the vegetation height is within the range of 10 to 20 cm, and where, for at least 80% of sampling points, Succisa pratensis is present within a 1 m radius. Scrub (>1 metre tall) covers no more than 10% of area.

·         Suitable marshy grassland comprises grassland where Succisa pratensis is present at lower frequencies but still widely distributed throughout the habitat patch and in which scrub (>1 metre tall) covers no more than 20% of area. Alternatively, Succisa may be present at high density in close-cropped swards.

·         The factors influencing the breeding habitat are under control

Annex II species  qualifying feature

Southern damselfly  Coenagrion mercuriale

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 2016)

·         Density of adult males during sampling is at least 1 male per 10 square metres of breeding habitat

·         The extent of breeding habitat is at least 1500 square metres.

·         Breeding habitat will be mapped where patches of oviposition plants are present as more  than 20% cover over areas greater than 0.5 square metres and no more than 20% of the total cover consists of Apium nodiflorum greater than 15cm tall. Southern damselfly females lay their eggs into the tissue of emergent aquatic plants and in Wales the key species are Menyanthes trifoliata (bog-bean), Hypericum elodes (marsh St. John’s wort), Potamogeton polygonifolius (bog pondweed) and Apium nodiflorum (fool’s watercress).

·         · The factors influencing the flush habitat are under control


 

Site name : Preseli SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN110320

JNCC Site Code: UK0012598

Size: 2701.68ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats qualifying features

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jun 2012)

Wet heath will cover at least 11%3 of the site and display a range of plant species typical of the habitat. Most of the wet heath will have a mixture of tussocks of purple moor-grass, separated by closely grazed patches rich in deer grass, bog mosses and heathers such as cross-leaved heath. A proportion should also have a range of short sedges and flowering plants such as round leaved sundew.

·         The following plants will be common in the wet heath: heather Calluna vulgaris; cross-leaved heath Erica tetralix; purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea; bog asphodel Narthecium ossifragum; short sedges Carex species; mosses including bog moss Sphagnum species; devil’s bit scabious Succisa pratensis.

·         Competitive species indicative of under-grazing, particularly Purple Moor Grass Molinia caerulea and Western Gorse Ulex gallii will be kept in check.

·         Bracken, and scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent from the wet heath.

European dry heaths

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jun 2012)

·         Dry heath will cover at least 11%2 of Mynydd Preseli SSSI and display a range of plant, insect and bird species typical of the habitat.

·         The following plants will be common in the dry heath: heather Calluna vulgaris; bell heather Erica cinerea and western gorse Ulex gallii.

·         Competitive species indicative of under-grazing, particularly bracken Pteridium aquilinum, purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea and western gorse Ulex gallii will be kept in check.

Depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion

Unfavourable: Declining (Aug 2012)

Depressions on peat substrates is a habitat type which typically occurs in complex mosaics with wet heath and flush habitats. The vegetation will be open, and have an abundance of species such as white beak-sedge Rhynchospora alba, the bog moss Sphagnum auriculatum, marsh clubmoss Lycopodiella inundata and round-leaved sundew Drosera rotundifolia. The amount of this habitat on the site has not been clearly defined yet, but is thought to be around 1-2% of the total site area.

·         Depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion will occupy roughly 1-2% of the SAC, and be present in at least two management units (currently units 2 and 3).

·         The following plants will be common: white beaked sedge Rhynchospora alba, the bog moss, Sphagnum denticulatum, round-leaved sundew Drosera rotundifolia and, in relatively base-rich sites, brown mosses such as Drepanocladus revolvens and Scorpidium scorpioides.

·         The vegetation in these areas will be typically very open and competitive species indicative of under-grazing, particularly purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea, will be kept in check.

·         Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent.

Alkaline fens

Favourable: Unclassified (Dec 2004)

Alkaline fen will be present in patches across the site and display a range of plant and insect species typical of the habitat, including the southern damselfly. The flushes supporting this specific habitat will comprise short, open vegetation rich in small mosses, sedges and plants characteristic of less acidic conditions.

·         Alkaline fens will be present in 8 out of the 10 pink areas as shown on map.

·         Characteristic flush species such as Menyanthes trifoliata, Triglochin palustre, Anagallis tenella, Pedicularis palustris and Pinguicula vulgaris will be present

·         Species indicative of negative change, such as Juncus squarrosus, will be absent.

·         Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely absent.

Annex II habitats qualifying features

Southern damselfly  Coenagrion mercuriale

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jul 11)

·         The density of adult males, during sampling, will be at least 1 male per 10 square metres of breeding habitat

·         • There will be at least 3500 square metres of breeding habitat

·         • All factors affecting the feature will be under control

Marsh fritillary butterfly  Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Unfavourable: No change (Sept 2011)

A healthy population of the marsh fritillary butterfly will be present on and around the SAC. There will be sufficient suitable and good condition habitat to support viable meta-populations of the butterfly which is dependent here on marshy grassland and flush, with tussocks of purple moor-grass and plenty of the caterpillar’s main food-plant, devil’s bit scabious. The swards will vary in height so that there are short ‘lawn’ areas for the caterpillars to sun themselves on, and taller tussocky areas to provide shelter.

For each of the two Meta-populations present within the SAC

·         • There should be at least 200 larval webs per hectare of Good Condition habitat

·         • There should be at least 50ha of Suitable habitat on the SAC or within a 2km radius around it.

·         • At least 10ha of this suitable habitat should be Good Condition Habitat

·         All factors affecting the feature must be under control

Slender green feather-moss  Drepanocladus (Hamatocaulis) vernicosus

Favourable: Maintained (Feb 2006)

Slender green feather moss is a qualifying feature in the SAC, but has been found to be considerably more frequent and abundant both within Preseli SAC, and indeed in a number of other sites in Wales than was previously thought. In the light of this, it has been decided to treat the feature as part of the Rare mosses on damp ground SSSI feature.

 


 

Site name : Mynydd Epynt SAC

Location Grid Reference: SN883400

JNCC Site Code: UK0030221

Size: 40.11ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex II species primary reason for selection

Slender green feather-moss  Drepanocladus (Hamatocaulis) vernicosus

Favourable: Unclassified (Aug 2009)

·         There is a thriving population of varnished hook-moss in the mildly base-rich flushes, at six different locations spread throughout the site.

·         Around 1.5 ha of suitable flush vegetation will continue to occur at Mynydd Epynt at the six different locations and the moss will continue to be present and maintain its distribution throughout the suitable areas of flush in at least ten separate locations overall.

·         The water table is maintained at or near to the surface for most of the year within the flushes.

·         The flushes are open in character with no woody shrubs present.

·         The flushes are not dominated by rushes, purple moor-grass or bog-mosses (Sphagnum spp.).

·         The following plants are typically found in the flushes scattered amongst the moss carpet but not dominant: carnation sedge Carex panicea, star sedge C. echinata, common sedge C. nigra , purple moor-grass Molinia caerulea and rushes Juncus acutifolius and J. articulatus.

·         Species indicative of agricultural modification, such as perennial rye grass Lolium perenne and white clover Trifolium repens are absent from the flushes and the surrounding areas of SSSI/SAC in the six locations.

·         All six locations continue to be grazed by sheep at a level which maintains the short open sward of the flushes without poaching.

·         All six locations are free from physical damage such as trampling/poaching caused by livestock, troop activity, passage of agricultural/other vehicles, or impact damage from weapons practice.

·         The population of varnished hook-moss is stable and is sustainable in the long term with its range not contracting and all factors that may affect the species are under control.

 


 

Site name : River Usk / Afon Wysg SAC

Location Grid Reference: SO301113

JNCC Site Code: UK0013007

Size: 967.97ha

 

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Annex I habitats qualifying features

Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The natural range of the plant communities represented within this feature should be stable or increasing in the SAC.

·         The area covered by the feature within its natural range in the SAC should be stable or increasing.

·         The conservation status of the feature’s typical species should be favourable. The typical species are defined with reference to the species composition of the appropriate JNCC river vegetation type for the particular river reach, unless differing from this type due to natural variability when other typical species may be defined as appropriate.

Annex II species primary reason for selection

Otter  Lutra lutra

Favourable: Recovered (Mar 2010)

·         The population of otters in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term and reflects the natural carrying capacity of the habitat within the SAC, as determined by natural levels of prey abundance and associated territorial behaviour.

·         The natural range of otters in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future. The safe movement and dispersal of individuals around the SAC is facilitated by the provision, where necessary, of suitable riparian habitat, and underpasses, ledges, fencing etc at road bridges and other artificial barriers.

Sea lamprey  Petromyzon marinus

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Nov 2012)

·         The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above must be met

·         The population of the feature in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long term.

·         The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

·         There is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain the feature’s population in the SAC on a long-term basis.

Brook lamprey  Lampetra planeri

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Nov 2012)

River lamprey  Lampetra fluviatilis

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Nov 2012)

Twaite shad  Alosa fallax

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Atlantic salmon  Salmo salar

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Bullhead  Cottus gobio

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)

Annex II species qualifying feature

Allis shad  Alosa alosa

Unfavourable: Unclassified (Jan 2012)


 

Special Protection Areas and Ramsar sites

Site name : Elenydd-Mallaen SPA

Location Grid Reference:

JNCC Site Code: UK9014111

Size: 30022.14ha

Qualifying Features

Condition Assessment

Conservation Objectives

Breeding Red Kite Milvus milvus

Favourable: Unclassified (Jun 2000)

·         The SPA area continues to support at least 15 pairs of breeding red kites, or 0.5% of the British population.

·         Traditional nest sites within the SPA continue to be used.

·         The extent of suitable semi-natural feeding habitat within the SPA is maintained.

·         Availability of carrion within the SPA is maintained.

·         Roosting sites within the SPA are maintained.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Breeding Merlin Falco columbaris

Favourable: Unclassified (Jun 2003)

·         The SPA area continues to support at least 7 pairs of breeding merlins, or 0.5% of the British population.

·         Traditional nest sites within the SPA continue to be used.

·         The extent of suitable semi-natural feeding habitat within the SPA is maintained.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Breeding Peregrine Falco peregrinus

Favourable: Maintained (2006)

·         The SPA area continues to support at least 15 pairs of breeding peregrines, or 0.5% of the British population.

·         Traditional nest sites within the SPA continue to be used.

·         The extent of suitable semi-natural feeding habitat within the SPA is maintained.

·         All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Site name : Carmarthen Bay SPA

Location Grid Reference:

JNCC Site Code: UK9014091

Size: 30022.14ha

Common scoter Melanitta nigra.

Not Assessed

·         The numbers of all SPA bird species are stable or increasing.

·         The abundance and distribution of suitable prey are sufficient and appropriate to support the numbers of all SPA bird species.

·         All SPA birds are allowed to inhabit their feeding grounds and resting areas with minimum disturbance, and are allowed to move unhindered between them.

·         All states of the Conservation Objectives for the supporting habitats and species, subject to natural processes, are fulfilled and maintained in the long-term.

Supporting habitats for bird species of the Burry Inlet SPA include:

•Estuaries

•Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide

•Atlantic salt meadows

•Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud and sand

‘Large shallow inlets and bays’ are the supporting habitat for the common scoter of the Carmarthen Bay SPA.

·         The management and control of activities or operations likely to be of significant effect to the oystercatchers, is appropriate for maintaining the feature at FCS and is secure in the long-term.

Site name : Burry Inlet SPA/Ramsar

Location Grid Reference:

JNCC Site Code:

Size:  6627.99

Curlew Numenius arquata

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

·         The numbers of all SPA bird species are stable or increasing.

·         The abundance and distribution of suitable prey are sufficient and appropriate to support the numbers of all SPA bird species.

·         All SPA birds are allowed to inhabit their feeding grounds and resting areas with minimum disturbance, and are allowed to move unhindered between them.

·         All states of the Conservation Objectives for the supporting habitats and species, subject to natural processes, are fulfilled and maintained in the long-term.

·         Supporting habitats for bird species of the Burry Inlet SPA include:

•Estuaries

•Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide

•Atlantic salt meadows

•Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud and sand

‘Large shallow inlets and bays’ are the supporting habitat for the common scoter of the Carmarthen Bay SPA.

·         The management and control of activities or operations likely to be of significant effect to the oystercatchers, is appropriate for maintaining the feature at FCS and is secure in the long-term.

Dunlin Calidris alpina alpine

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Grey plover Pluviatilis squatarola

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Knot Calidris canutus

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Pintail Anas acuta

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Redshank Tringa tetanus

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Shelduck Tadorna tadorna

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Shoveler Anas clypeata

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Teal Anas crecca

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)

Turnstone Arenaria interpres

Not Assessed

Wigeon Anas penelope

Favourable: Unclassified (Mar 2004)


Appendix 2.Nitrogen Deposition Data for SAC’s/SPA’s within Carmarthenshire and 15km Buffer Zone

Site

Designated features

Critical Load Class

Critical Load (kg N/ha/yr)

Site Average (kg N/ha/yr)

 

Afon Teifi

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea

Permanent oligotrophic waters: Softwater lakes

3 - 10

14.2

 

Luronium natans – Floating water-plantain

3 - 10

14.2

 

Caeau Mynydd Mawr

Marsh fritillary butterfly - Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia 

Non-mediterranean dry acid and neutral closed grassland

10

22

 

Sub-atlantic semi-dry calcareous grassland

15

22

 

Moist and wet oligotrophic grasslands: Molinia caerulea meadows

10

22

 

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae)

Moist and wet oligotrophic grasslands: Molinia caerulea meadows

15

22.0

 

Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries

Atlantic salt meadows

Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud and sand

Pioneer, low-mid, mid-upper salt marshes

30

11.1

Carmarthen Bay and Dunes

Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes)

Coastal stable dune grasslands - acid type

8

12.7

 

Coastal stable dune grasslands - calcareous type

10

12.7

 

Humid dune slacks

Moist to wet dune slacks – acid type

10

12.7

 

Moist to wet dune slacks – calcareous type

15

12.7

 

Fen Orchid – Liparis loeselii

Moist to wet dune slacks

10-15

12.7

 

Petalwort - Petalophyllum ralfsii

 

Dunes with Salix repens ssp argentea (Salicion arenariae)

 

Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (“white dunes”)

Embryonic shifting dunes

Shifting coastal dunes

10

12.7

Cernydd Carmel

Active raised bogs

Raised and blanket bogs

5

21.1

 

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Northern wet heath: Erica tetralix dominated wet heath

10

21.1

 

European dry heaths

Dry heaths

10

21.1

 

Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines

Meso- and eutrophic Quercus woodland

15

31.3

 

Cleddau Rivers

Active raised bogs

Raised and blanket bogs

5

19.2

 

Cwm Doethie

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles

Acidophilous Quercus-dominated woodland

10

21.5

 

 

European dry heaths

Dry heaths

10

13.8

 

Gower Ash Woods

Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines

Meso- and eutrophic Quercus woodland

15

17.3

 

Gower Commons

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Southern damselfly  Coenagrion mercuriale

Northern wet heath: Erica tetralix dominated wet heath

10

11.9

 

European dry heaths

Dry heaths

10

11.9

 

Marsh fritillary butterfly

Non-mediterranean dry acid and neutral closed grassland

10

11.9

 

Sub-atlantic semi-dry calcareous grassland

15

11.9

Moist and wet oligotrophic grasslands: Molinia caerulea meadows

10

11.9

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae)

 

Gweunydd Blaencleddau

Blanket bogs

Raised and blanket bogs

5

21.3

 

Marsh fritillary butterfly  Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Non-mediterranean dry acid and neutral closed grassland

10

21.3

 

Sub-atlantic semi-dry calcareous grassland

15

21.3

 

Moist and wet oligotrophic grasslands: Molinia caerulea meadows

10

21.3

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae)

 

Transition mires and quaking bogs

Valley mires, poor fens and transition mires

10

21.3

 

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Southern damselfly  Coenagrion mercuriale

Northern wet heath: Erica tetralix dominated wet heath

10

21.3

 

Alkaline fens

Rich fens

15

21.3

 

Mynydd Epynt

Slender green feather-mossDrepanocladus (Hamatocaulis) vernicosus 

Valley mires, poor fens and transition mires

10

14.9

 

Pembrokeshire Bat Sites and Bosherton Lakes

Rhinolophus hipposideros - Lesser horseshoe bat

Rhinolophus ferrumequinum - Greater horseshoe bat

Broadleaved deciduous woodland

10

18.1

 

Pembrokeshire Marine

Shore Dock – Rumex rupestris

Moist to wet dune slacks

10

8.9

 

Coastal lagoons

Pioneer, low-mid, mid-upper saltmarshes

30

5.8

 

Atlantic salt meadows

30

8.9

 

Estuaries

30

8.9

 

Preseli

Marsh fritillary butterfly – Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Non-mediterranean dry acid and neutral closed grassland

10

18.9

 

Sub-atlantic semi-dry calcareous grassland

15

18.9

 

Moist and wet oligotrophic grasslands: Molinia caerulea meadows

10

18.9

 

Depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion

Valley mires, poor fens and transition mires

15

18.9

 

Slender green feather-moss - Drepanocladus (Hamatocaulis) vernicosus

15

18.9

 

European dry heaths

Dry heaths

10

18.9

 

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

Northern wet heath: Erica tetralix dominated wet heath

10

18.9

 

Southern damselfly – Coenagrion mercuriale

10

18.9

 

Alkaline Fens

Rich fens

15

18.9

 

Rhos Llawr-cwrt

Marsh fritillary butterfly - Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Non-mediterranean dry acid and neutral closed grassland

10

19.9

 

Sub-atlantic semi-dry calcareous grassland

15

19.9

 

Moist and wet oligotrophic grasslands: Molinia caerulea meadows

10

19.9

 

Slender green featherela-moss - Drepanocladus (Hamatocaulis) vernicosus

Valley mires, poor fens and transition mires

15

19.9

 

North Pembrokeshire Woodlands

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles

Acidophilous Quercus-dominated woodland

10

28.6

 

Barbastelle Bat -  Barbastella barbastellus

Broadleaved deciduous woodland

10

28.6

 

Yerbeston Tops

Marsh fritillary butterfly -  Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia

Non-mediterranean dry acid and neutral closed grassland

10

17.4

 

Sub-atlantic semi-dry calcareous grassland

15

17.4